Bellona’s fourth report on nuclear Russia

Publish date: October 8, 2004

Bellona is proud to announce its coming publication of The Russian Nuclear Industry—The Need for Reform.

The goal of this report is to present and analyse new developments in the Russian military and civilian nuclear complexes based on open sources and independent research. The report also seeks to guide policy makers and nuclear authorities to solutions based on sound, objective reasoning founded on open information. We also hope to inform general readers about the hazards the world faces as a result of the Cold War legacy, and how these threats are being addressed. In the report you will find:

  • The history of Russia ailing nuclear industry from its inception until today;
  • A description of the closed nuclear fuel cycle that Russia inherited from the Soviet Union;
  • A description of the effects—both beneficial and detrimental—that international and domestic nuclear remediation projects have had on the Russian nuclear industry;
  • A description of what drives the nuclear industry’s economy;
  • Bellona’s conclusions on what should be done to realize the reforms the Russian nuclear industry so dramatically needs.

We devote a special focus to the Mayak Chemical Combine, and the facility’s seemingly insurmountable problems of radioactive contamination, both within the facility, and via water sources into which the Combine dumps radioactive waste, spreading contamination through rivers and tributaries as far as the Arctic Ocean. We also investigate incidents and accidents at nuclear industry sites described in the report, as well as analyze the physical protection Russian the nuclear industry has against would-be nuclear thieves and terrorists.

Our analysis of assistance programmes, especially international ones, will be of special interest to donor states and organisations that provide this funding. Though much has been done with this funding to secure Russia’s nuclear legacy, we also conclude that the funding will fail to meet its goals unless an international coordinating structure and domestic Russian master plan are in place to define Russia’s nuclear remediation priorities. We also conclude that the world’s currently massive donor potential will not be realised unless Russia possesses truly independent and transparent nuclear regulation that will not be hindered by the newly formed Rosatom.

Most of all, the report highlights not only the Russian nuclear industry’s problems, but suggestions for helping to solve them. We believe this report to be necessary reading for every nuclear policy maker in Russia and the West in order that environmental nuclear security problems are better addressed. The report is also intended for the general public, with whom the ultimate power to pressure policy makers lies. For that reason the report will be available in both printed form by order and on Bellona’s web pages at The report will also be distributed to precisely those government policy makers who guide Russia nuclear dismantlement process.

Printed copies of The Russian Nuclear Industry—The Need for Reform will be available for $40. You can order an advanced copy two ways:

1.) Send payment details (Visa or Eurocard number, type and expiry date, name, address, postal code and organisational affiliation, if any) to

2.) Send payment information to Bellona at Bellona, 2141 Grunerløkka, 0505 Oslo, Norway:



    Organizational affiliation, if applicable:

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