Publications and archive

Construction Site Machinery in the Clean Vehicles Directive

The ongoing recast of the EU Clean Vehicles Directive (CVD) offers a unique opportunity to create this market demand by extending public authorities’ procurement obligations to construction site machinery and equipment. While the scope of the existing legislation has to date been limited to light- and heavyduty road vehicles, there is a clear rationale to expand its provisions to non-road mobile machinery in order to further reduce urban dwellers’ exposure to health damaging levels of air and noise pollution. This paper provides guidance on […]

Zero Emission Construction Sites: The possibilities and barriers of electric construction machinery – Factsheet

Construction is a fundamental component of human civilisation. It lies at the heart of economic and social development. In fact, the construction industry generates roughly 9% of European GDP and accounts for 18 million jobs. In spite of this, construction sites are also a major source of environmental and human health damage throughout all aspects of the construction process. Combined with increasing urbanisation trends and a fast-growing global population, it goes without saying that construction is here to stay. This calls for the adoption […]

Electro-mobility Platform recommendations to accelerate electric charging infrastructure deployment

Only 20% of passenger car charging is done using public chargers, the rest is done using private chargers at home or at work. As such, the deployment of infrastructure should tackle both the facility to charge publicly and privately in order to provide market certainty and long term stability. This Platform for Electro-mobility brief sets several recommendations for the deployment of infrastructure in the EU.

CCU fuels in the recast Renewable Energy Directive: Letter to Negotiators

In light of the trilogue on the RED II taking place in early May, Bellona has, together with Transport&Environment, Zero Waste Europe, Carbon Market Watch and Sandbag, sent a letter to the negotiators on the inclusion of Carbon Capture and Utilisation (CCU) fuels in the directive. The letter expresses our concern about the inclusion of a wide variety of Carbon Capture and Utilisation (CCU) fuels – we are therefore seeking robust environmental safeguards to protect the integrity of the EU’s climate and energy policy framework. The […]

Virtuous climate ambitions, virtual solutions: Precarious delivery of industrial CO2 capture & storage projects in Norway

This policy brief looks at the role of Norway’s CCS projects and their possible effects on roll-out of CCS projects in Northern and Western Europe. The brief is partly a response to a report by consultancy Atkins on the costs and benefits of the Norwegian CCS project, which has several major shortcomings and is therefore not suitable as a basis for a Norwegian government or parliament decision on investment in a full-scale CCS value chain.

How EU Member States roll-out electric-mobility: Electric charging infrastructure in 2020 and beyond

Sufficient publicly accessible charging infrastructure is a key enabler for the accelerated uptake of electric cars. This briefing by the Platform for Electro-Mobility analyses the current and planned future roll-out of EV charging infrastructure in European Member States, based governments’ plans (National Policy Frameworks) submitted to the European Commission as part of the implementation of the EU Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive.

Reaction Paper on the Clean Vehicles Directive recast

The Platform for Electro-Mobility, of which Bellona is a founding member, welcomes the European Commission (EC) proposal to amend Directive 2009/33/EU on the promotion of clean and energy-efficient road vehicles in public procurement (or so-called Clean Vehicles Directive), and considers it holds potential to set the transport sector on a course to swift decarbonisation and improved air quality in urban centers. This paper calls on the European Parliament and Member States to build upon the Commission’s proposal and deliver a bolder text […]

The Opportunities for Ukraine in a Low-Carbon Future

Ukraine has in recent years dealt with many more challenges than opportunities. The economic situation in the country has fluctuated over the previous decades, varying from times of struggle to renewed growth and to recession again due to external influence. Today the Ukrainian economy still rests on traditional core industries, with exports in the form of agricultural goods, metals and lower value-added products. These sectors are limited in growth potential, and potentially at risk from new disruptive technologies. It is important for Ukraine […]

Bellona letter to EFTA Surveillance Authority (ESA) on the importance of leaving Norwegian electric vehicle incentives unchanged

Today, Bellona sent a recommendations letter to ESA (EFTA Surveillance Authority), highlighting the importance of keeping Norwegian electric vehicle (EV) incentives unchanged for next year. According to media sources, ESA is looking into curbing  VAT exemption for EVs from the beginning of next year, on grounds that EVs have now become much cheaper to produce […]

Financing Resilient Electric Recharging Infrastructure

In this paper the Platform for Electro-Mobility suggests how the European Commission and Member States can play a key role in stirring investments towards the deployment of future-proof recharging infrastructure. The recommendations are divided into three main categories, namely 1) private domain: buildings; 2) public charging points in urban areas; and 3) electrification along and beyond the TEN-T network. Having lead the Platform’s infrastructure-related work, Bellona has brought together the platform’s members in producing this […]

Complaint regarding the Norwegian Petroleum Taxation Act of 1975, as amended in 2005 with regards to the up-front cash flow reimbursement scheme for all direct and indirect exploration expenses

Today, Bellona made a complaint about the Norwegian state to ESA (EFTA Surveillance Authority), in order to put an end to favorable sponsorship of oil and gas companies. Over a ten-year period, Norway has sponsored the oil and gas exploration expenses of non-tax-paying companies with over 90 billion Norwegian kroner (NOK, 9.7 billion Euro).

Bellona Europa Reality Check: The ‘Power to Liquids’ Trap

With its Clean Energy Package, the EU is on the verge of repeating costly energy and climate policy failures of the recent past. Attempting to provide a low-carbon transport fuel replacement alternative to conventional biofuels, the European Commission in its revision of the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) proposes a 2030 target for ‘low-emission and renewable fuels’. The proposed target includes so-called ‘’renewable liquid and gaseous transport fuels of non-biological origin’’. This opens the door for massive public […]

RAW Handling in Some EU Countries and Russia. Public Participation

Almost every modern country faces problems with radioactive waste (RAW) disposal, as nuclear
technologies are now used in many areas – power generation, medicine, science, defense, safety
tools, etc. As a result of using these technologies, the world has accumulated about 250 mln m3
of solid RAW and an unknown amount of liquid RAW. Each country solves the problems of
handling RAW (including disposal) according to its government’s abilities and the amount of waste
accumulated.

BellonaBrief: Rethinking the cost of conventionally fueled road transport

Poor air quality, largely resulting from conventionally fueled road transport, is Europe’s largest environmental health hazard, claiming thousands of lives each year. In its newly launched policy brief, Bellona explores the heavy yet unaccounted for human health costs from the fossil car industry and estimates that if these were to be paid by car makers themselves, we would see a doubling in ICE cars price tags. Our conclusions are simple: electro-mobility is the only viable cost-effective approach to drastically reducing damaging air […]

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Opportunities and Risks of Seaweed Biofuels in Aviation

Today, Bellona publishes its new report on the potential and challenges of using seaweed biofuels in aviation. The report provides comprehensive recommendations for researchers, public authorities and consumers. By mapping existing knowledge and practice, sustainability and development of the technology, Bellona comes to the conclusion that the use of seaweed biofuel can unlock great potentials, while addressing many of the challenges associated with conventional biofuels.

Accelerating Electric Recharging Infrastructure Deployment in Europe

The Platform for Electro-mobility, of which Bellona is a founding member, has today, 28 November 2016, launched a new paper on ‘Accelerating Electric Recharging Infrastructure Deployment in Europe’. Bellona has brought together all 24 members of the Platform, from across industries and transport modes, in producing this well-timed paper: which comes just as EU Member States are delivering national plans for their implementation of the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure (AFI) Directive and just two days prior to the release of the […]

BellonaBrief: CCU in the EU ETS: risk of CO2 laundering preventing a permanent CO2 solution

Drastically reducing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is necessary to reach the climate goals of the Paris Agreement. The permanent geological disposal of CO2 captured from industrial facilities, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), provides an essential and achievable avenue for reaching this objective. In this brief, Bellona explains why Carbon Capture and Use/Utilisation methods, except for those allowing for permanent storage of CO2, should be excluded from the ETS.

BellonaBrief: Brexit Implications on Climate, Energy and Environment

On 24 June 2016 the United Kingdom voted 52% to 48% in a referendum to leave the European Union. Many resources are now likely to be diverted from running the EU and progressing important policies toward instead managing and negotiating the referendum implications. While many uncertainties and questions remain to be addressed, one thing remains certain: Bellona has championed environmental and climate protection in Europe from outside EU membership for over 20 years and will continue to do so. While domestic implications for the UK remain […]

Electro-mobility Platform Recommendations Paper on Decarbonising Transport through Electro-mobility

Electro-mobility offers an unequalled solution to make Europe’s transport more efficient, less dependent on imported energy, low carbon, clean and quiet. Specifically, the electrification of surface transport will enable Member States to meet their greenhouse gas emission reduction targets for 2030; and addresses the public health crisis arising from urban air pollution.

BellonaBrief: Attaining an interoperable EV recharging infrastructure in Europe

2016 will be a decisive year in terms of EU Member States’ preparatory process for the implementation of the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure (AFI) directive. In fact, by November 2016, Member States will have to have submitted their so-called National Policy Frameworks (NPFs), outlining how they aim to go about the directive’s transposition. The months leading up to November will therefore be crucial for creating a common understanding, among Member States as well as EU policy makers, of how best to implement the directive and how to […]

Bellona response to the consultation on the preparation of a new renewable energy directive for the period after 2020

The EU has been a central driving force in the broader adoption of renewable energy technologies worldwide. Policy landmarks such as the EU 2050 Roadmap and the initial EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED) have helped stake direction and secure cost reductions across technologies such as wind and solar power, benefiting markets also outside the EU. Embarking on the REDII (2020-30), the global context is altered, with COP21 mobilising a joint and increased emphasis on global decarbonisation with particular view to adoption of RES as a key path. […]

North Sea to the Rescue: The commercial and industrial opportunities of CO2 storage in the North Sea

CCS is an indispensable component of national and global decarbonisation pathways as recognised by the IPCC, the IEA, and the European Commission. Using estimates of the CO2 required to be stored in the North Sea for Europe to reach its 2050 decarbonisation objectives, Bellona has estimated the size of the future North Sea CO2 storage sector. The CO2 storage sector has the potential to become a major North Sea enterprise, employing 22,000 people by 2030. Countries surrounding the North Sea basin must act to encourage the sectors development and […]

Where will the energy storage mega trend lead us?

Bellona sees energy storage as a required piece of the decarbonisation puzzle. The technology will rapidly become an integral part of European electricity supply systems. The huge disruptive effect of energy storage to the existing energy market is being driven by two trends: the need for energy storage to optimise the deployment of renewable energy sources on the one hand, and the high return potential for manufactures, operators and home owners, on the other. This report was launched at the high-level event ‘Energy storage – the […]

BellonaBrief: IPCC 5th Climate Assessment Report: An unequivocal call for action on (Bio-)CCS

The latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 5AR, 2014) issued a stark warning: to stand a reasonable chance of avoiding disastrous climate change, we have to remain within a ‘safe’ level of CO2 emissions so that average global temperature rise is limited to 2°C. Because more than half of the CO2 ‘budget’ that allows us to remain within this threshold has already been used and current rates will exhaust the remainder within 25 years, the IPCC’s scenarios now rely on negative emissions to keep temperature […]

BellonaBrief: Why an electrified transport sector needs to form a core component of the Energy Union

Transport constitutes a large and untapped sector for significant amount of cost effective mitigation potential. Meeting the EU’s target of reducing CO2 emissions from transport by 60% and of eliminating the use of fossil fuels in cars by 2050 will, however, necessitate significant and immediate efforts. Bellona sees electric vehicles (EVs), in particular, as representing one of the most promising technologies for cutting CO2 emissions, reducing petroleum reliance and improving local air quality. EVs will, furthermore, help to optimise the […]

eRoute71: Bellona’s efforts in building re-charging infrastructure for EVs in Norway

One of the key barriers preventing the wider uptake of EVs across EU Member States today is their perceived limited driving range. The prospect of running out of battery without any possibility of re-charging can act to discourage consumers from purchasing EVs. In recognition of this barrier, Bellona, together with Salto Ladestasjoner AS company has established the eRoute 71 company which aims to establish a robust charging-infrastructure for EVs in Norway and the Nordic countries, and thus assist Norway and the EU in achieving their climate […]

BellonaBrief: The Emission Testing Gap – Why business as usual for the conventional car industry cannot continue

The recent revelations concerning Volkswagen (VW) having equipped around 11 million of its vehicles with defeat devices to allow its fleet to produce artificially low NOx emission results when the test is conducted triggered a broader investigation into the entire car maker industry. This in turn confirmed Bellona’s long-held assumptions about fraudulent practices and test manipulations being commonplace across the entire car industry. Not only are further car makers being added to the list of cheaters, but the practice has been found to also […]

Feedback to the Commission’s proposal for revision of the EU ETS

The IPCC’s 5th Assessment Report makes clear the necessity of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) and negative emissions, attained via Bio-CCS, in halting global average temperature rise below 2°C. The Report warns that the exclusion of this technology from the mitigation portfolio would entail abatement costs more than doubling. Moreover, it is clear that the large emissions from energy-intensive industries like steel, cement and chemicals cannot be deeply reduced without CCS. In the light of these facts, the slow deployment of CCS in Europe […]

BellonaBrief: CO2 Utilisation by mineralisation – much ado about nothing

No form of CO2 use should be considered a substitute for permanent geological storage of CO2. Some forms of CO2 use, such as EOR or EGR, can constitute or contribute to necessary CO2 removal infrastructure and therefore play a role in developing CO2 storage. However, other uses such as mineralisation do not appear to offer any such rationale as an alternative to geological CO2 storage. This brief takes a particular look at CO2 use through mineralisation.

Bellona Response to Consultation on the Effort Sharing Decision

Given that the Effort Sharing Decision (ESD) currently regulates more than half of the Union’s total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, it is therefore of crucial importance to ensure that significant incentives and financial support are provided for climate mitigation initiatives in the ESD sectors. Bellona sees the transport sector in particular as a large and untapped sector for significant amount of cost effective mitigation potential. Even though a variety of clean vehicle technologies and fuels are in development and use, Bellona sees EVs […]

BellonaBrief – Electromobility in the EU: State of Play and Way Forward

Currently, passenger cars alone are responsible for over 15% of total CO2 emissions in the EU. The global car fleet is predicted to double from 800 million to 1.6 billion vehicles by 2030. In view of goals to decarbonise transport, meet climate change objectives and reduce air pollution, this calls for technological advancements to ensure sustainable mobility in the long term. There are a variety of clean vehicle technologies and fuels in development and use, but electric vehicles (EVs) represent one of the most promising technologies for […]

A future CO2 economy: the case of Norway

Bellona has prepared a six-point list on how Norway can develop a CO2 economy which tackles emissions reductions nationally and simultaneously develops CCS as an industry in Europe. The report was in December 2014 sent out for consultation to around 400 Norwegian stakeholders and was in January 2015 updated according to comments from a wide academic community. Bellona recommends that the Norwegian government expands its CCS strategy with the purpose of establishing a profitable value chain for CO2 storage and CCS.

Bellona Response to the Consultation on Revision of the EU Emission Trading System Directive

In October 2014 the European Council reached an agreement on a 2030 Climate and Energy Framework, featuring a binding domestic target for reducing greenhouse gas emissions of at least 40% in 2030 as compared to 1990. To meet this target, the European Council agreed that the emissions in the EU Emission Trading System (ETS) should be reduced, compared to 2005, by 43%. The purpose of this EC-conducted consultation was to gather stakeholders’ views on key elements, including free allocation to industry, the establishment of a modernisation […]

Bellona Response to Energy Strategy of Ukraine 2035

Ukraine is at present in an unenviable position. Conflict with Russia is jeopardizing national security and the security of the country’s energy supply. Ratcheting up the pressure on the country is Kiev’s need to rapidly alter its energy legislation, bringing it into accord with that of the European Union and the European Energy Community. The Bellona Foundation, a Norwegian-based energy and environmental NGO, has started a three-year project in Ukraine to assist in the ongoing transition of the country’s energy supply and industrial […]

Bellona Europa response to the stakeholder consultation on Emission Trading System (ETS) post-2020 carbon leakage provisions

Carbon leakage is a term used to describe situations where, as a result of costs incurred from the implementation of climate policies, certain businesses relocate production to countries with less stringent (or no) climate policies in place. The European Commission has carried out a public consultation on the different options for a system to avoid carbon leakage after 2020 for sectors covered by the EU ETS. The results of this consultation will feed into further work on the 2030 Climate and Energy Policy Framework regarding the determination […]

Biomass with CO2 Capture and Storage (Bio-CCS), the way forward for Europe

Bellona is a Steering Committee member of the European Biofuels Technology Platform (EBTP). In addition to this, the EBTP and the ZEP (Zero Emissions Platform – EU technology platform for CCS, for which Bellona has the vice presidency) on Bellona’s initiative together created a joint taskforce (JTF) on biomass and CCS in early 2011, with Bellona’s President Frederic […]

Improving the Regulatory Framework, optimizing organization of the CCS value chain and financial incentives for CO2-EOR in Europe

The article is a result of scientific work in the ECCO project, a project which received funding from the European Community`s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013). The main objective of the project was to facilitate strategic decision making regarding early and future implementation of CO2 value chains. Europe is the world region with the most comprehensive pricing of CO2 emissions. […]

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How to close the gap between global energy demand and renewable energy production

Energy demand scenarios show that there will be a gap between total global energy demand and renewable energy production over the next decades. Therefore, a short-term strategy must be implemented to minimize GHG emissions from existing energy production. This can be achieved by developing a carbon dioxide (CO2) value chain including infrastructure for CO2 capture, transport and safe storage.

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The Russian Northern Fleet: Sources of Radioactive contamination

The report gives a thorough overview of the sources of potential releases of radioactivity which could harm the public health and the environment. The problems of nuclear waste and disused nuclear submarines is a product of the arms race and the cold war. Russia continues to build new nuclear submarines, but there are very few provisions being made to properly store old nuclear submarines and develop sufficient storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel and other radadioactive waste.

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