Publications and archive

Consultation Response – H2 Global – Market Consultation: Products, Quantities, Criteria

Ramping up global renewable hydrogen production to secure imports for Germany Bellona welcomes the ongoing efforts by countries to decarbonise and displace unabated fossil fuel use through new technologies, energy systems and carriers. Hydrogen undoubtedly has a key role to play in these efforts. As an energy vector, rather than a source, however, renewable hydrogen is reliant on immense amounts of renewable electricity to approximate the supply needed for a successful and rapid transformation. Bellona, therefore, firmly believes that in the […]

Consultation Response – REPowerEU chapters in the Recovery and Resilience Plans

Together with other decarbonisation strategies, REPowerEU chapters in policies such as the Recovery and Resilience plans should be designed to kickstart additional renewable energy deployment and focus on energy efficiency to create a more resilient and clean energy system. Boosting energy efficiency, and supporting key cross-border infrastructure and renewable generation needs to be prioritised instead of investments in fossil gas and circumventing basic sustainability criteria.

Consultation Response – Renewable energy projects: permit-granting processes & power-purchase agreements

Bellona supports the enhanced ambition of the Commission for speeding up permitting granting for renewables in the EU. However, the full potential of this strategy can be achieved by supporting Member States with the ensuring enough staff is available to ensure the permitting process is dealt within deadlines without compromising the quality of environmental impact assessments, and creating a systematic support for offshore wind such as the one foreseen for rooftop PV.

Consultation Response – Amended Proposal: Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) Revised Guidelines

Bellona Europa greatly welcomes the launched call for evidence on the TEN-T Regulation in the wake of a new geopolitical reality and the REPowerEU strategy. In addition to the outlined changes in line with the “Solidarity Lanes” Commission Communication and the need to update the TEN-T maps and connectivity to Ukraine and Moldova, we urge that the important role of the green and just transition is not only kept in the proposal, but also expanded to include multiple transport modalities for transporting CO2 to storage from industrial […]

Taxonomy CDA: Greenwashed Fossil Gas as a Bridge to Nowhere Stands to Only Benefit a Handful of Countries, Leaving Crucial CEE Region Behind 

As the consequences of Europe’s problematic dependency on cheap Russian fossil gas have become all too clear, the European Parliament is facing a watershed moment: whether or not to mark unabated fossil gas investments as green. Not only would such a green marking be in direct conflict with the aims of the REPowerEU Communication, but it would also stand to benefit only a handful of countries. It would be particularly damaging for the green transition in the Central Eastern European (CEE) region and would contribute to continued tight gas […]

Consultation Response – Rules for RFNBO and RCF production

Bellona Europa welcomes the ongoing efforts by the European Commission, and the invitation to provide views, feedback and recommendations on the published draft proposal to the Delegated act on the method for assessing greenhouse gas emission savings for recycled carbon fuels and renewable fuels of non-biological origin. We welcome the intention of the Commission to assess all fuels according to their full impacts across their entire lifecycle.

Using REPowerEU to its full potential

On the 8th March 2022, the EU Commission published REPowerEU, a strategy to cope with Europe’s dependency on fossil fuels and in particular Russian gas. The EU must thus maximise its efforts finally moving towards both climate goals and energy security. Our assessment shows that the current strategy is ineffective at reducing gas use. By prioritising technologies that are inefficient at displacing gas, the European Union is missing the opportunity to free itself from Russian gas quickly and cheaply.

Bellona Europa publishes ‘Fit for 2030’ climate scoreboard

This briefing outlines our assessment of the package and provides broad recommendations on how to improve its implementation and the revision of the files it contains. In other words, it is an initial analysis, based on our key areas of expertise, including heavy industry, mobility and climate accounting, of related topics as they emerge across the different legislative files of the package.  

Making a Difference in European Carbon: fitting in a CBAM to support heavy industry transformation

This report models four scenarios for how a CBAM could be made part of the Fit for 2030 package to be launched in July 2021 as part of the EU Green Deal agenda and concludes that at least 75% coverage for the selected sectors should be pursued. This option has the benefit of generating more income for innovation and deployment earlier on in Phase IV (already in 2026) therefore having the possibility of turning the next decade into one of action and success for the transformation of heavy industry in the EU.

Undefined ‘decarbonised’ gas has no role on path to net-zero by 2050

As efforts to decarbonise our economy and energy systems pick up, we are seeing an increased reliance on decarbonized fuels, gas in particular – often times referred to as “renewable” and “low-carbon” gases. While low carbon intensity gases and fuels can contribute on the path to net-zero by 2050 – the terminology is confusing, with no common definition to determine when in fact a gas or fuel is renewable or low-carbon. 

Briefing: Defining Low Carbon and Renewable Gas

As efforts to decarbonise our economy and energy systems pick up, we are seeing an increased reliance on decarbonized fuels, gas in particular – often times referred to as “renewable” and “low-carbon” gases. While low carbon intensity gases and fuels can contribute on the path to net-zero by 2050 – the terminology is confusing, with no common definition to determine when in fact a gas or fuel is renewable or low-carbon.

REDII Revision Position Paper

The Renewable Energy Directive (RED) will be the legislative cornerstone for emission reductions in many sectors. By setting a clear legislative guidepost, the RED can significantly contribute to climate change mitigation. Setting up the right framework for such Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and deployment can prevent adverse effects, such as excessive biomass consumption, the continued use of fossil electricity sources or false accounting.

Brief: TEN-E missing puzzle piece on pathway to Net-Zero

“Ten-E missing puzzle piece on pathway to Net-Zero” which aims to explain how the inclusion of TEN-E could contribute to the EU climate
objectives and the deployment of a net-zero future. the Revised TEN-E European Commission’s draft neglects some key elements for geologic storage and transport modalities other than pipeline –  integral parts of the value chain of carbon capture, removal and storage. A monumental shift in policy is needed to scale it – and we believe TEN-E is a perfect place to start.

Consultation Response – Revised TEN-E Regulation

Following our consultation response in December 2020 and July 2020, we submitted our latest response to the public consultation on the revision of the TEN-E Regulation. The revision of the TEN-E Regulation is a watershed moment for the future of Europe’s CO2 networks. By not addressing or amending the category of CO2 networks, the current proposal is in direct contrast with the underlying justification for the ongoing revision of the TEN-E Regulation, as outlined in the European Green Deal.

Feedback on the delegated acts of REDII

The revised Renewable Energy Directive (REDII), adopted in 2018, establishes a common framework for the promotion of energy from renewable sources in various sectors. In order to ensure these fuels are indeed contributing to the climate goals of the EU, the GHG methodology for RFNBOs and RCFs used in the transport sector should give clear definitions and guidance for calculations in order to avoid misinterpretation and to ensure that all the relevant climate impacts of the fuels are counted.

The Prydniprovsky Chemical Plant — Ukraine’s Uranium Heritage

This review, entitled “The Prydniprovsky Chemical Plant Ukraine’s Uranium Heritage,Pridniprovsky Chemical plant (English)” was prepared by Ukrainian experts in cooperation with the Bellona Foundation.
The aim of this report is to draw attention of the national and international institutions to one of the most problematic objects of the Soviet Union’s nuclear heritage in Ukraine. We analyze the situation and suggest proposals for a roadmap toward eliminating hazardous objects at the Prydniprovsky Chemical Plant and […]

Feedback Response – Competition Policy supporting the Green Deal

The goal of EU competition rules is to promote and protect effective competition in markets, delivering efficient outcomes to the benefit of consumers. Bellona Europa has responded to the call for contributions to gather ideas on how EU competition policy can best support the Green Deal. As Executive Vice President Vestager has underlined: “To succeed, everyone in Europe will have to play their part – every individual, every public authority. And that includes competition enforcers.”.
Our overarching point is that it is necessary to amend […]

Consultation Response – Sustainable Products Initiative

Bellona Europa welcomes  the Sustainable Product Policy Initiative’s intention to assess the true environmental impact of products and correct existing market failures which do not take into account their externalities. Many externalities related to manufactured goods, such as climate impacts, are significant yet not taken into account. internalising climate impacts would allow steel, cement and chemicals industries to create new markets and pursue more ambitious climate action strategies.

Consultation Response – Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism

The Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) as part of the EU Green Deal policy portfolio. This new mechanism is aiming at counteract this risk of limited ambitions by international partners by putting a carbon price on imports of certain goods from outside the EU. As an environmental policy tool, with a trade and competitiveness dimension, the CBAM will enable the EU to take fuller responsibility for the carbon footprint of its imports.

Consultation Response – TEN-E Regulation – July 2020

The revised TEN-E Regulation must reflect the urgent need for climate action, and be in line with pathways to reach the target of carbon neutrality by 2050. It t must encourage and facilitate the development of energy carriers consistent with the transition to a low-carbon world. Particularly, the revised TEN-E regulation must reflect the urgency of facilitating the deployment of crucial Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies, as well as excluding unabated fossil fuel infrastructure projects which are massive risk bearers for emissions […]

Position Paper: All that the NRMM Regulation isn’t.

Regulations on Non Road Mobile Machinery (NRMM) are currently under revision by the European Commission and the European Parliament due to covid-19 crisis. In our Position Paper “All that the NRMM Regulation isn’t and what it could be” we highlight how the development of new technologies for construction machinery opens up an opportunity for the EU to take the lead in the innovation of the sector. If only the EU would be willing to take the leadership.

Joint Paper: Laying the Foundations for a Net Zero Society

The Covid-19 pandemic brings into sharp focus the need for net zero actions to sustain and con-tribute to the well-being of the UK economy and society. Together with the  Centre of Energy Policy at the University of Strathclyde (CEP) we release our special joint paper where we consider the design of a Framework for recovery in the UK that could align near-term economic priorities with both short and medium-term climate goals.

Policy Brief: Recycled Carbon Fuels in the Renewable Energy Directive

Brussels, 16th June –  Ahead of the stakeholder meeting on the Renewable Energy Directive on 18th-19th June,  Bellona Europa,  Zero Waste Europe and Rethink Plastic Alliance launch the policy brief “Recycled Carbon Fuels in the Renewable Energy Directive“. The revised Renewable Energy Directive (REDII) establishes a common framework for the promotion of energy from renewable […]

Insights: Non Road Machinery Stage V transition deadlines for non-road mobile machinery.

The European Commission proposed to postpone the implementation of the Stage V requirements of the non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) Regulation for 12 months due to COVID-19. In this brief, Bellona highlights the issue that this delay might entail.
While these are challenging times, the current situation should not be an excuse to reduce environmental ambition. In fact, there is the unique chance for a green recovery to push for change and benefit everyone universally.

Joint Briefing by Zero Waste Europe and Bellona: Recycled Carbon Fuels in the Renewable Energy Directive

The revised Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) includes fuels which are produced from waste streams of non-renewable origin, also known as “recycled carbon fuels”. This means that fuels derived from non-renewable wastes such as plastic, rubber, gaseous wastes etc., could be promoted through transport targets and support schemes. This briefing by Zero Waste Europe and Bellona Europa highlights the key concerns regarding these fuels. In addition, the briefing provides recommendations which ensure that the RED II is implemented in a way that […]

Construction Site Machinery in the Clean Vehicles Directive

The ongoing recast of the EU Clean Vehicles Directive (CVD) offers a unique opportunity to create this market demand by extending public authorities’ procurement obligations to construction site machinery and equipment. While the scope of the existing legislation has to date been limited to light- and heavyduty road vehicles, there is a clear rationale to expand its provisions to non-road mobile machinery in order to further reduce urban dwellers’ exposure to health damaging levels of air and noise pollution. This paper provides guidance on […]

Zero Emission Construction Sites: The possibilities and barriers of electric construction machinery – Factsheet

Construction is a fundamental component of human civilisation. It lies at the heart of economic and social development. In fact, the construction industry generates roughly 9% of European GDP and accounts for 18 million jobs. In spite of this, construction sites are also a major source of environmental and human health damage throughout all aspects of the construction process. Combined with increasing urbanisation trends and a fast-growing global population, it goes without saying that construction is here to stay. This calls for the adoption […]

Electro-mobility Platform recommendations to accelerate electric charging infrastructure deployment

Only 20% of passenger car charging is done using public chargers, the rest is done using private chargers at home or at work. As such, the deployment of infrastructure should tackle both the facility to charge publicly and privately in order to provide market certainty and long term stability. This Platform for Electro-mobility brief sets several recommendations for the deployment of infrastructure in the EU.

CCU fuels in the recast Renewable Energy Directive: Letter to Negotiators

In light of the trilogue on the RED II taking place in early May, Bellona has, together with Transport&Environment, Zero Waste Europe, Carbon Market Watch and Sandbag, sent a letter to the negotiators on the inclusion of Carbon Capture and Utilisation (CCU) fuels in the directive. The letter expresses our concern about the inclusion of a wide variety of Carbon Capture and Utilisation (CCU) fuels – we are therefore seeking robust environmental safeguards to protect the integrity of the EU’s climate and energy policy framework. The […]

Virtuous climate ambitions, virtual solutions: Precarious delivery of industrial CO2 capture & storage projects in Norway

This policy brief looks at the role of Norway’s CCS projects and their possible effects on roll-out of CCS projects in Northern and Western Europe. The brief is partly a response to a report by consultancy Atkins on the costs and benefits of the Norwegian CCS project, which has several major shortcomings and is therefore not suitable as a basis for a Norwegian government or parliament decision on investment in a full-scale CCS value chain.

How EU Member States roll-out electric-mobility: Electric charging infrastructure in 2020 and beyond

Sufficient publicly accessible charging infrastructure is a key enabler for the accelerated uptake of electric cars. This briefing by the Platform for Electro-Mobility analyses the current and planned future roll-out of EV charging infrastructure in European Member States, based governments’ plans (National Policy Frameworks) submitted to the European Commission as part of the implementation of the EU Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive.

Reaction Paper on the Clean Vehicles Directive recast

The Platform for Electro-Mobility, of which Bellona is a founding member, welcomes the European Commission (EC) proposal to amend Directive 2009/33/EU on the promotion of clean and energy-efficient road vehicles in public procurement (or so-called Clean Vehicles Directive), and considers it holds potential to set the transport sector on a course to swift decarbonisation and improved air quality in urban centers. This paper calls on the European Parliament and Member States to build upon the Commission’s proposal and deliver a bolder text […]

The Opportunities for Ukraine in a Low-Carbon Future

Ukraine has in recent years dealt with many more challenges than opportunities. The economic situation in the country has fluctuated over the previous decades, varying from times of struggle to renewed growth and to recession again due to external influence. Today the Ukrainian economy still rests on traditional core industries, with exports in the form of agricultural goods, metals and lower value-added products. These sectors are limited in growth potential, and potentially at risk from new disruptive technologies. It is important for Ukraine […]

Bellona letter to EFTA Surveillance Authority (ESA) on the importance of leaving Norwegian electric vehicle incentives unchanged

Today, Bellona sent a recommendations letter to ESA (EFTA Surveillance Authority), highlighting the importance of keeping Norwegian electric vehicle (EV) incentives unchanged for next year. According to media sources, ESA is looking into curbing  VAT exemption for EVs from the beginning of next year, on grounds that EVs have now become much cheaper to produce […]

Financing Resilient Electric Recharging Infrastructure

In this paper the Platform for Electro-Mobility suggests how the European Commission and Member States can play a key role in stirring investments towards the deployment of future-proof recharging infrastructure. The recommendations are divided into three main categories, namely 1) private domain: buildings; 2) public charging points in urban areas; and 3) electrification along and beyond the TEN-T network. Having lead the Platform’s infrastructure-related work, Bellona has brought together the platform’s members in producing this […]

Complaint regarding the Norwegian Petroleum Taxation Act of 1975, as amended in 2005 with regards to the up-front cash flow reimbursement scheme for all direct and indirect exploration expenses

Today, Bellona made a complaint about the Norwegian state to ESA (EFTA Surveillance Authority), in order to put an end to favorable sponsorship of oil and gas companies. Over a ten-year period, Norway has sponsored the oil and gas exploration expenses of non-tax-paying companies with over 90 billion Norwegian kroner (NOK, 9.7 billion Euro).

Bellona Europa Reality Check: The ‘Power to Liquids’ Trap

With its Clean Energy Package, the EU is on the verge of repeating costly energy and climate policy failures of the recent past. Attempting to provide a low-carbon transport fuel replacement alternative to conventional biofuels, the European Commission in its revision of the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) proposes a 2030 target for ‘low-emission and renewable fuels’. The proposed target includes so-called ‘’renewable liquid and gaseous transport fuels of non-biological origin’’. This opens the door for massive public […]

RAW Handling in Some EU Countries and Russia. Public Participation

Almost every modern country faces problems with radioactive waste (RAW) disposal, as nuclear
technologies are now used in many areas – power generation, medicine, science, defense, safety
tools, etc. As a result of using these technologies, the world has accumulated about 250 mln m3
of solid RAW and an unknown amount of liquid RAW. Each country solves the problems of
handling RAW (including disposal) according to its government’s abilities and the amount of waste

BellonaBrief: Rethinking the cost of conventionally fueled road transport

Poor air quality, largely resulting from conventionally fueled road transport, is Europe’s largest environmental health hazard, claiming thousands of lives each year. In its newly launched policy brief, Bellona explores the heavy yet unaccounted for human health costs from the fossil car industry and estimates that if these were to be paid by car makers themselves, we would see a doubling in ICE cars price tags. Our conclusions are simple: electro-mobility is the only viable cost-effective approach to drastically reducing damaging air […]

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Opportunities and Risks of Seaweed Biofuels in Aviation

Today, Bellona publishes its new report on the potential and challenges of using seaweed biofuels in aviation. The report provides comprehensive recommendations for researchers, public authorities and consumers. By mapping existing knowledge and practice, sustainability and development of the technology, Bellona comes to the conclusion that the use of seaweed biofuel can unlock great potentials, while addressing many of the challenges associated with conventional biofuels.

Accelerating Electric Recharging Infrastructure Deployment in Europe

The Platform for Electro-mobility, of which Bellona is a founding member, has today, 28 November 2016, launched a new paper on ‘Accelerating Electric Recharging Infrastructure Deployment in Europe’. Bellona has brought together all 24 members of the Platform, from across industries and transport modes, in producing this well-timed paper: which comes just as EU Member States are delivering national plans for their implementation of the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure (AFI) Directive and just two days prior to the release of the […]

BellonaBrief: CCU in the EU ETS: risk of CO2 laundering preventing a permanent CO2 solution

Drastically reducing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is necessary to reach the climate goals of the Paris Agreement. The permanent geological disposal of CO2 captured from industrial facilities, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), provides an essential and achievable avenue for reaching this objective. In this brief, Bellona explains why Carbon Capture and Use/Utilisation methods, except for those allowing for permanent storage of CO2, should be excluded from the ETS.

BellonaBrief: Brexit Implications on Climate, Energy and Environment

On 24 June 2016 the United Kingdom voted 52% to 48% in a referendum to leave the European Union. Many resources are now likely to be diverted from running the EU and progressing important policies toward instead managing and negotiating the referendum implications. While many uncertainties and questions remain to be addressed, one thing remains certain: Bellona has championed environmental and climate protection in Europe from outside EU membership for over 20 years and will continue to do so. While domestic implications for the UK remain […]

Electro-mobility Platform Recommendations Paper on Decarbonising Transport through Electro-mobility

Electro-mobility offers an unequalled solution to make Europe’s transport more efficient, less dependent on imported energy, low carbon, clean and quiet. Specifically, the electrification of surface transport will enable Member States to meet their greenhouse gas emission reduction targets for 2030; and addresses the public health crisis arising from urban air pollution.

BellonaBrief: Attaining an interoperable EV recharging infrastructure in Europe

2016 will be a decisive year in terms of EU Member States’ preparatory process for the implementation of the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure (AFI) directive. In fact, by November 2016, Member States will have to have submitted their so-called National Policy Frameworks (NPFs), outlining how they aim to go about the directive’s transposition. The months leading up to November will therefore be crucial for creating a common understanding, among Member States as well as EU policy makers, of how best to implement the directive and how to […]

Bellona response to the consultation on the preparation of a new renewable energy directive for the period after 2020

The EU has been a central driving force in the broader adoption of renewable energy technologies worldwide. Policy landmarks such as the EU 2050 Roadmap and the initial EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED) have helped stake direction and secure cost reductions across technologies such as wind and solar power, benefiting markets also outside the EU. Embarking on the REDII (2020-30), the global context is altered, with COP21 mobilising a joint and increased emphasis on global decarbonisation with particular view to adoption of RES as a key path. […]

North Sea to the Rescue: The commercial and industrial opportunities of CO2 storage in the North Sea

CCS is an indispensable component of national and global decarbonisation pathways as recognised by the IPCC, the IEA, and the European Commission. Using estimates of the CO2 required to be stored in the North Sea for Europe to reach its 2050 decarbonisation objectives, Bellona has estimated the size of the future North Sea CO2 storage sector. The CO2 storage sector has the potential to become a major North Sea enterprise, employing 22,000 people by 2030. Countries surrounding the North Sea basin must act to encourage the sectors development and […]

Where will the energy storage mega trend lead us?

Bellona sees energy storage as a required piece of the decarbonisation puzzle. The technology will rapidly become an integral part of European electricity supply systems. The huge disruptive effect of energy storage to the existing energy market is being driven by two trends: the need for energy storage to optimise the deployment of renewable energy sources on the one hand, and the high return potential for manufactures, operators and home owners, on the other. This report was launched at the high-level event ‘Energy storage – the […]

BellonaBrief: IPCC 5th Climate Assessment Report: An unequivocal call for action on (Bio-)CCS

The latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 5AR, 2014) issued a stark warning: to stand a reasonable chance of avoiding disastrous climate change, we have to remain within a ‘safe’ level of CO2 emissions so that average global temperature rise is limited to 2°C. Because more than half of the CO2 ‘budget’ that allows us to remain within this threshold has already been used and current rates will exhaust the remainder within 25 years, the IPCC’s scenarios now rely on negative emissions to keep temperature […]

BellonaBrief: Why an electrified transport sector needs to form a core component of the Energy Union

Transport constitutes a large and untapped sector for significant amount of cost effective mitigation potential. Meeting the EU’s target of reducing CO2 emissions from transport by 60% and of eliminating the use of fossil fuels in cars by 2050 will, however, necessitate significant and immediate efforts. Bellona sees electric vehicles (EVs), in particular, as representing one of the most promising technologies for cutting CO2 emissions, reducing petroleum reliance and improving local air quality. EVs will, furthermore, help to optimise the […]

eRoute71: Bellona’s efforts in building re-charging infrastructure for EVs in Norway

One of the key barriers preventing the wider uptake of EVs across EU Member States today is their perceived limited driving range. The prospect of running out of battery without any possibility of re-charging can act to discourage consumers from purchasing EVs. In recognition of this barrier, Bellona, together with Salto Ladestasjoner AS company has established the eRoute 71 company which aims to establish a robust charging-infrastructure for EVs in Norway and the Nordic countries, and thus assist Norway and the EU in achieving their climate […]

BellonaBrief: The Emission Testing Gap – Why business as usual for the conventional car industry cannot continue

The recent revelations concerning Volkswagen (VW) having equipped around 11 million of its vehicles with defeat devices to allow its fleet to produce artificially low NOx emission results when the test is conducted triggered a broader investigation into the entire car maker industry. This in turn confirmed Bellona’s long-held assumptions about fraudulent practices and test manipulations being commonplace across the entire car industry. Not only are further car makers being added to the list of cheaters, but the practice has been found to also […]

Feedback to the Commission’s proposal for revision of the EU ETS

The IPCC’s 5th Assessment Report makes clear the necessity of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) and negative emissions, attained via Bio-CCS, in halting global average temperature rise below 2°C. The Report warns that the exclusion of this technology from the mitigation portfolio would entail abatement costs more than doubling. Moreover, it is clear that the large emissions from energy-intensive industries like steel, cement and chemicals cannot be deeply reduced without CCS. In the light of these facts, the slow deployment of CCS in Europe […]

BellonaBrief: CO2 Utilisation by mineralisation – much ado about nothing

No form of CO2 use should be considered a substitute for permanent geological storage of CO2. Some forms of CO2 use, such as EOR or EGR, can constitute or contribute to necessary CO2 removal infrastructure and therefore play a role in developing CO2 storage. However, other uses such as mineralisation do not appear to offer any such rationale as an alternative to geological CO2 storage. This brief takes a particular look at CO2 use through mineralisation.

Bellona Response to Consultation on the Effort Sharing Decision

Given that the Effort Sharing Decision (ESD) currently regulates more than half of the Union’s total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, it is therefore of crucial importance to ensure that significant incentives and financial support are provided for climate mitigation initiatives in the ESD sectors. Bellona sees the transport sector in particular as a large and untapped sector for significant amount of cost effective mitigation potential. Even though a variety of clean vehicle technologies and fuels are in development and use, Bellona sees EVs […]

BellonaBrief – Electromobility in the EU: State of Play and Way Forward

Currently, passenger cars alone are responsible for over 15% of total CO2 emissions in the EU. The global car fleet is predicted to double from 800 million to 1.6 billion vehicles by 2030. In view of goals to decarbonise transport, meet climate change objectives and reduce air pollution, this calls for technological advancements to ensure sustainable mobility in the long term. There are a variety of clean vehicle technologies and fuels in development and use, but electric vehicles (EVs) represent one of the most promising technologies for […]

A future CO2 economy: the case of Norway

Bellona has prepared a six-point list on how Norway can develop a CO2 economy which tackles emissions reductions nationally and simultaneously develops CCS as an industry in Europe. The report was in December 2014 sent out for consultation to around 400 Norwegian stakeholders and was in January 2015 updated according to comments from a wide academic community. Bellona recommends that the Norwegian government expands its CCS strategy with the purpose of establishing a profitable value chain for CO2 storage and CCS.

Bellona Response to the Consultation on Revision of the EU Emission Trading System Directive

In October 2014 the European Council reached an agreement on a 2030 Climate and Energy Framework, featuring a binding domestic target for reducing greenhouse gas emissions of at least 40% in 2030 as compared to 1990. To meet this target, the European Council agreed that the emissions in the EU Emission Trading System (ETS) should be reduced, compared to 2005, by 43%. The purpose of this EC-conducted consultation was to gather stakeholders’ views on key elements, including free allocation to industry, the establishment of a modernisation […]

Bellona Response to Energy Strategy of Ukraine 2035

Ukraine is at present in an unenviable position. Conflict with Russia is jeopardizing national security and the security of the country’s energy supply. Ratcheting up the pressure on the country is Kiev’s need to rapidly alter its energy legislation, bringing it into accord with that of the European Union and the European Energy Community. The Bellona Foundation, a Norwegian-based energy and environmental NGO, has started a three-year project in Ukraine to assist in the ongoing transition of the country’s energy supply and industrial […]

Bellona Europa response to the stakeholder consultation on Emission Trading System (ETS) post-2020 carbon leakage provisions

Carbon leakage is a term used to describe situations where, as a result of costs incurred from the implementation of climate policies, certain businesses relocate production to countries with less stringent (or no) climate policies in place. The European Commission has carried out a public consultation on the different options for a system to avoid carbon leakage after 2020 for sectors covered by the EU ETS. The results of this consultation will feed into further work on the 2030 Climate and Energy Policy Framework regarding the determination […]

Biomass with CO2 Capture and Storage (Bio-CCS), the way forward for Europe

Bellona is a Steering Committee member of the European Biofuels Technology Platform (EBTP). In addition to this, the EBTP and the ZEP (Zero Emissions Platform – EU technology platform for CCS, for which Bellona has the vice presidency) on Bellona’s initiative together created a joint taskforce (JTF) on biomass and CCS in early 2011, with Bellona’s President Frederic […]

Improving the Regulatory Framework, optimizing organization of the CCS value chain and financial incentives for CO2-EOR in Europe

The article is a result of scientific work in the ECCO project, a project which received funding from the European Community`s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013). The main objective of the project was to facilitate strategic decision making regarding early and future implementation of CO2 value chains. Europe is the world region with the most comprehensive pricing of CO2 emissions. […]

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How to close the gap between global energy demand and renewable energy production

Energy demand scenarios show that there will be a gap between total global energy demand and renewable energy production over the next decades. Therefore, a short-term strategy must be implemented to minimize GHG emissions from existing energy production. This can be achieved by developing a carbon dioxide (CO2) value chain including infrastructure for CO2 capture, transport and safe storage.

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The Russian Northern Fleet: Sources of Radioactive contamination

The report gives a thorough overview of the sources of potential releases of radioactivity which could harm the public health and the environment. The problems of nuclear waste and disused nuclear submarines is a product of the arms race and the cold war. Russia continues to build new nuclear submarines, but there are very few provisions being made to properly store old nuclear submarines and develop sufficient storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel and other radadioactive waste.

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