We have defined 121 solutions that our experts believe will be important to cut emissions, and reaching the 2050-targets of the Paris Agreement. These solutions are divided into seven categories, and all of them depend on five fundamental requirements that have to be in place to cut emissions all over the world.
Publications and archive
Waste incineration and Carbon Capture and Storage Position Paper
Waste reduction, separation, recycling and sorting of residual waste are all needed to reduce emissions and environmental impacts in the industry. That said, carbon capture and storage can also reduce emissions in the remaining waste incinerators that will be operational in the decades to come and should be a requirement for their operation.
Climate action in the steel industry
Steel is all around us. In our houses, cars, refrigerators and the wind farm outside our window. Its link to rising living standards across the globe means that the demand for steel is expected to increase by more than a third by 2050. To avoid a corresponding increase in emissions, we need to improve how we use, re-use and produce steel.
Bellona Europa 6 recommendations to safeguard CEEAG state aid guidelines climate credibility
While the published proposal is an important step on the path to delivering on the ambitions set in the European Green Deal, important changes to the draft are necessary to safeguard the climate impact of the CEEAG Guidelines.
The Industrial CCS Support Framework in the Netherlands
This policy brief outlines and explains the current framework that is in place to deliver CCS as one of the decarbonisation solutions for Dutch industry through a combination of support instruments, most notably the SDE++, and increasing penalties for emitting CO2 through a new carbon tax that effectively tops up the EU ETS price.
Bellona Europa publishes ‘Fit for 2030’ climate scoreboard
This briefing outlines our assessment of the package and provides broad recommendations on how to improve its implementation and the revision of the files it contains. In other words, it is an initial analysis, based on our key areas of expertise, including heavy industry, mobility and climate accounting, of related topics as they emerge across the different legislative files of the package.
Making a Difference in European Carbon: fitting in a CBAM to support heavy industry transformation
This report models four scenarios for how a CBAM could be made part of the Fit for 2030 package to be launched in July 2021 as part of the EU Green Deal agenda and concludes that at least 75% coverage for the selected sectors should be pursued. This option has the benefit of generating more income for innovation and deployment earlier on in Phase IV (already in 2026) therefore having the possibility of turning the next decade into one of action and success for the transformation of heavy industry in the EU.
Contract Incentives for Industrial Carbon Capture
Contracts giving incentives for reducing emissions by carbon capture have a valuable role to play in stimulating deployment of early CCS. Contracts may be Contracts for Difference (CfDs) on the market carbon price, but will not necessarily be so. The form of the contract will depend on how changes in carbon prices affect project income.
Models for Transport and Storage of Captured CO2
Carbon capture projects require guaranteed, reliable access to safe and cost-effective CO2 transport and storage. Without this it will not be possible for capture projects to secure investment, or for CCS to play the role it needs to play in reaching emissions reductions goals.
Elimination of the Cold War’s Nuclear Heritage: 20 years of international cooperation
A little more than 20 years ago, in Murmansk, Russia, the relics of the Cold War were still close at hand. Nealy 200 nuclear submarines, the calling card of the once-feared Soviet Navy, sat rusting at dockside at bases throughout the country’s Northwest, their reactors still loaded with nuclear fuel. Whether they would sink, possibly […]
Undefined ‘decarbonised’ gas has no role on path to net-zero by 2050
As efforts to decarbonise our economy and energy systems pick up, we are seeing an increased reliance on decarbonized fuels, gas in particular – often times referred to as “renewable” and “low-carbon” gases. While low carbon intensity gases and fuels can contribute on the path to net-zero by 2050 – the terminology is confusing, with no common definition to determine when in fact a gas or fuel is renewable or low-carbon.
Bellona’s letter to the Arctic Council
As Russia begins its two-year chairmanship of the Arctic Council, Bellona supports an international response to raising nuclear submarines and other radioactive debris scuttled by the Soviet Union in Arctic seas. In a letter to council members sent this week, Bellona wrote that it “sincerely believes that the period of the Russian Federation’s chairmanship of […]
Briefing: Defining Low Carbon and Renewable Gas
As efforts to decarbonise our economy and energy systems pick up, we are seeing an increased reliance on decarbonized fuels, gas in particular – often times referred to as “renewable” and “low-carbon” gases. While low carbon intensity gases and fuels can contribute on the path to net-zero by 2050 – the terminology is confusing, with no common definition to determine when in fact a gas or fuel is renewable or low-carbon.
REDII Revision Position Paper
The Renewable Energy Directive (RED) will be the legislative cornerstone for emission reductions in many sectors. By setting a clear legislative guidepost, the RED can significantly contribute to climate change mitigation. Setting up the right framework for such Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and deployment can prevent adverse effects, such as excessive biomass consumption, the continued use of fossil electricity sources or false accounting.
Electrolysis Hydrogen Production In Europe
This is the first briefing to introduce the CO2 intensity of hydrogen calculation methodology into the debate. In the absence of other clear guidelines for projects for hydrogen and their compatibility with the net-zero future, this is the first go-to guide.
Russian Nuclear Power, status as of January, 2021
For another consecutive year, Russia’s civilian nuclear industry is expanding. While the Soviet Union built reactors in countries all over Eastern Europe, Russia’s Rosatom is looking to go global. Russia is currently biggest exporter of nuclear power plants in the world, offering sizable loans to foreign governments looking to get in on the nuclear energy […]
Brief: TEN-E missing puzzle piece on pathway to Net-Zero
“Ten-E missing puzzle piece on pathway to Net-Zero” which aims to explain how the inclusion of TEN-E could contribute to the EU climate
objectives and the deployment of a net-zero future. the Revised TEN-E European Commission’s draft neglects some key elements for geologic storage and transport modalities other than pipeline – integral parts of the value chain of carbon capture, removal and storage. A monumental shift in policy is needed to scale it – and we believe TEN-E is a perfect place to start.
Consultation Response – Revised TEN-E Regulation
Following our consultation response in December 2020 and July 2020, we submitted our latest response to the public consultation on the revision of the TEN-E Regulation. The revision of the TEN-E Regulation is a watershed moment for the future of Europe’s CO2 networks. By not addressing or amending the category of CO2 networks, the current proposal is in direct contrast with the underlying justification for the ongoing revision of the TEN-E Regulation, as outlined in the European Green Deal.
Feedback on the delegated acts of REDII
The revised Renewable Energy Directive (REDII), adopted in 2018, establishes a common framework for the promotion of energy from renewable sources in various sectors. In order to ensure these fuels are indeed contributing to the climate goals of the EU, the GHG methodology for RFNBOs and RCFs used in the transport sector should give clear definitions and guidance for calculations in order to avoid misinterpretation and to ensure that all the relevant climate impacts of the fuels are counted.
Consultation Response – Sustainable Finance EU Classification System for Green Investments
The final Delegated Acts (DAs) will define the future role and uptake of the Taxonomy, and above all its ability to direct capital to sustainable investment projects. Bellona Europa has identified 9 recommendations to ensure the climate impact credibility of the Taxonomy, and support its long-term relevance and uptake.
Policy Brief : Building Back Greener
In this Policy Brief, Bellona outlines what we consider six areas key to enabling a just, equitable and effective transition to a net-zero industry. Crucially, it needs to be ensured that the government’s current goal to ‘build back better’ fulfils the ambition of building back greener.
The Prydniprovsky Chemical Plant — Ukraine’s Uranium Heritage
This review, entitled “The Prydniprovsky Chemical Plant Ukraine’s Uranium Heritage,Pridniprovsky Chemical plant (English)” was prepared by Ukrainian experts in cooperation with the Bellona Foundation.
The aim of this report is to draw attention of the national and international institutions to one of the most problematic objects of the Soviet Union’s nuclear heritage in Ukraine. We analyze the situation and suggest proposals for a roadmap toward eliminating hazardous objects at the Prydniprovsky Chemical Plant and […]
Consultation Response – Roadmap for the EU ETS revision
The EU ETS covers a range of sectors essential to the transformation towards a low-carbon, net-zero economy. The EU ETS must recognise Europe’s commitments under the Paris Agreement. Bellona Europa believes that the EU ETS’s revised parameters must be designed carefully to ensure that the scheme robustly supports the rapid decarbonisation of the economy foreseen for the next 3 decades.
Feedback Response – Competition Policy supporting the Green Deal
The goal of EU competition rules is to promote and protect effective competition in markets, delivering efficient outcomes to the benefit of consumers. Bellona Europa has responded to the call for contributions to gather ideas on how EU competition policy can best support the Green Deal. As Executive Vice President Vestager has underlined: “To succeed, everyone in Europe will have to play their part – every individual, every public authority. And that includes competition enforcers.”.
Our overarching point is that it is necessary to amend […]
Consultation Response – Sustainable Products Initiative
Bellona Europa welcomes the Sustainable Product Policy Initiative’s intention to assess the true environmental impact of products and correct existing market failures which do not take into account their externalities. Many externalities related to manufactured goods, such as climate impacts, are significant yet not taken into account. internalising climate impacts would allow steel, cement and chemicals industries to create new markets and pursue more ambitious climate action strategies.
Consultation Response – Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism
The Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) as part of the EU Green Deal policy portfolio. This new mechanism is aiming at counteract this risk of limited ambitions by international partners by putting a carbon price on imports of certain goods from outside the EU. As an environmental policy tool, with a trade and competitiveness dimension, the CBAM will enable the EU to take fuller responsibility for the carbon footprint of its imports.
Briefing: Norway’s Longship CCS Project
In this briefing we describe the Norwegian CCS project “Longship” giving an overview of the project and the stages of its CCS chain.
The project is receiving Norwegian Government funding, hence we further analyse financial risks and estimated project costs.
Finally, we calculate cost per tonnes of avoided CO2 within the premises of the Longship project and its contribution to climate mitigation.
Climate Solutions for Industry
Our newest interactive project aims to identifying, comparing and evaluatating potential solutions to accelerate industrial decarbonisation. By screening 15 solutions, we illustrate the realistic potential and the current readiness level for each solution to make sure we start building the right framework to reach carbon neutrality.
Open Letter: Council must back Parliament position of European Climate Law
In light of the European Council meeting which will unfold in the next days, together with Carbon Market Watch and Fern, we send a open letter to the Heads of governments, Council President, Commission President, Ministers of Environmens and the Ambassadors from Member States to the EU, urging you to uphold the integrity of the EU’s 2030 climate target,
Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride
Over the past several months, there has been alarm in Russia about the import of depleted uranium, a possibly dangerous substance that some regard as radioactive waste. Bellona’s Alexander Nikitin, who heads our St Petersburg office, has since helmed a working group with nuclear officials aimed at keeping this process transparent for a nervous public.
Consultation Response – TEN-E Regulation – July 2020
The revised TEN-E Regulation must reflect the urgent need for climate action, and be in line with pathways to reach the target of carbon neutrality by 2050. It t must encourage and facilitate the development of energy carriers consistent with the transition to a low-carbon world. Particularly, the revised TEN-E regulation must reflect the urgency of facilitating the deployment of crucial Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies, as well as excluding unabated fossil fuel infrastructure projects which are massive risk bearers for emissions […]
Position Paper for a Clean Hydrogen Alliance: Hydrogen From Electricity – Setting Sustainability Standards
Renewable, low carbon and clean hydrogen that is produced from electricity requires Sustainability Criteria to deliver emissions reductions, increase renewable deployment and to prevent greenwashing of fossil fuels.
Position Paper: All that the NRMM Regulation isn’t.
Regulations on Non Road Mobile Machinery (NRMM) are currently under revision by the European Commission and the European Parliament due to covid-19 crisis. In our Position Paper “All that the NRMM Regulation isn’t and what it could be” we highlight how the development of new technologies for construction machinery opens up an opportunity for the EU to take the lead in the innovation of the sector. If only the EU would be willing to take the leadership.
Joint Paper: Laying the Foundations for a Net Zero Society
The Covid-19 pandemic brings into sharp focus the need for net zero actions to sustain and con-tribute to the well-being of the UK economy and society. Together with the Centre of Energy Policy at the University of Strathclyde (CEP) we release our special joint paper where we consider the design of a Framework for recovery in the UK that could align near-term economic priorities with both short and medium-term climate goals.
Policy Brief: Recycled Carbon Fuels in the Renewable Energy Directive
Brussels, 16th June – Ahead of the stakeholder meeting on the Renewable Energy Directive on 18th-19th June, Bellona Europa, Zero Waste Europe and Rethink Plastic Alliance launch the policy brief “Recycled Carbon Fuels in the Renewable Energy Directive“. The revised Renewable Energy Directive (REDII) establishes a common framework for the promotion of energy from renewable […]
Insights: Non Road Machinery Stage V transition deadlines for non-road mobile machinery.
The European Commission proposed to postpone the implementation of the Stage V requirements of the non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) Regulation for 12 months due to COVID-19. In this brief, Bellona highlights the issue that this delay might entail.
While these are challenging times, the current situation should not be an excuse to reduce environmental ambition. In fact, there is the unique chance for a green recovery to push for change and benefit everyone universally.
Consultation Response – EU Hydrogen Strategy – June 2020
The EU Hydrogen strategy will explore how clean hydrogen can help reduce the EU economy’s carbon emissions in a cost-effective way. It is in line with the EU’s goal – set out in the European Green Deal – to be climate-neutral by 2050. It should also help the EU recover from COVID-19’s economic impact. In […]
Consultation Response – Smart Sector Integration – June 2020
To ensure that smart sector integration actions actually contribute to emission reductions, Bellona Europa recommends the use of four screening criteria and their respective metrics for the initial climate evaluation of Smart Sector Integration actions.
Consultation Response – European Climate Law – achieving climate neutrality by 2050 – May 2020
In our consultation response We find it necessary to remind the European Commission that while NETPs will have a role to play in the plan to achieve climate neutrality by 2050, it cannot be perceived as a silver bullet.
Consultation Response – Climate Law Roadmap – April 2020
The proposed “Climate Law”, if done right, has the potential to deliver on the European promise to become a “Global Leader” on tackling climate change. For this to occur, the Law needs to ensure that all EU policies actively contribute to and are in line with the aims of the Paris Agreement.
Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Extension: A creeping catastrophe
Any discussion of nuclear disasters brings events like Chernobyl and Fukushima to mind. But the civilian nuclear industry could be facing a quieter nuclear failure. Simply put, the world’s nuclear reactors are getting dangerously old. Yet more and more often, countries operating nuclear reactors are deciding to run them for longer than they were designed […]
Cities Aim at Zero Emissions
Together with The Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance (CNCA) NIRAS and five Northern European capitals , we worked on the report “Cities Aim at Zero Emissions: How carbon capture, storage and utilisation can help cities go carbon neutral”. The report overviews the latest CCSU technologies, the current progress made by the five cities, and business models […]
Restoring Europe. The European Green Deal and the future of Europe
Bellona is deeply invested in the future of Europe and the importance of European leadership in tackling climate change on a global scale. The world’s other major emitters – China, the US, Russia, Brazil, and more – each, in their own way, are now looking to Europe as a test case for just how serious […]
Keeping business as usual: CO2 avoidance in the EU ETS Monitoring and Reporting Regulation
The upcoming revision EU Emission Trading System (ETS) includes the update of the regulation on monitoring and reporting (MRR)i. In order to ensure the effectiveness of the EU ETS in reducing emissions, the reporting and monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions must remain ‘’robust, transparent, consistent and accurate’’ii.
Nornickel – Environmental Ambitions
Norilsk Nickel, also known as Nornickel is a world-leading producer of nickel, palladium and other metals. It has its key company assets in the Russian Arctic, on the Taymyr and Kola Peninsula. On the Kola Peninsula, company assets are operated by a subsidiary known as Kola Mining and Metallurgical Company (Kola MMC). Any mining and […]
Zero Emission Construction Sites: Status 2019
Construction is a key industrial sector, yet climate change and air pollution are critical threats to be addressed, with severe warnings from scientists. The construction industry therefore needs to evolve and contribute towards the shift to a sustainable society. Conventional methods currently contribute to both climate and air pollution. But it doesn’t have to be this way.
Joint Briefing by Zero Waste Europe and Bellona: Recycled Carbon Fuels in the Renewable Energy Directive
The revised Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) includes fuels which are produced from waste streams of non-renewable origin, also known as “recycled carbon fuels”. This means that fuels derived from non-renewable wastes such as plastic, rubber, gaseous wastes etc., could be promoted through transport targets and support schemes. This briefing by Zero Waste Europe and Bellona Europa highlights the key concerns regarding these fuels. In addition, the briefing provides recommendations which ensure that the RED II is implemented in a way that […]
Hazardous waste management in Russia and the EU
Read the paper here (PDF). This working paper was prepared by Bellona as a part of the project Quality Journalism for Environmental Activists in Russia and the EU. The project is supported by the EU– Russia Civil Society Forum (www.eu-russia-csf.org) and its donors.
Questions of handling the legacy of radioactive contamination at the Mayak Production Association
In this paper, Bellona examines available environmental impact study documents released at a public hearing and a Strategic Master Plan for decontamination. Questions of handling the legacy of radioactive contamination at the Mayak Production Association (pdf)
Nornickel and the Kola Peninsula: Charting Ecological Progress without a Compass
Bellonas newest report on the pollution from the metal industry on the Kola Peninsula shows that Nornickel and Kola MMC are implementing concrete measures to reduce the emissions of harmful substances from all their facilities in the Murmansk region. This has led to a reported reduction in emissions the latest years, although the problem remains significant.
The Russian Nuclear Industry and Public Oversight
The purpose of this overview is to draw attention to the fact that such an important and complex industry as the nuclear industry cannot successfully operate, evolve, and gain public acceptance without public oversight, as stipulated by Russian law. Therefore, efforts should be made in the nuclear industry to construct a system of legal regulations […]
Understanding our Future
Climate change is happening. Human activity has caused and continues to contribute to towards it; the current and projected severity of its impacts has increased; and it remains an imminently solvable or manageable problem if the required actions are taken. Our ability to understand the interaction between global climate, energy, and earth systems is based […]
An Industry’s Guide to Climate Action
Did you know that European industry emissions are already larger than total coal power emissions in the EU? Did you also know that one in five jobs in Europe is in industry (50 million in total), which generates almost a quarter of Europe’s GDP? This means that 20% of Europe’s workforce and the basis of […]
Position paper on the implementation of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive
This position paper provides an analysis of the electromobility infrastructure-related obligations, contained in the EPBD’s Article 8, and goes on to provide a number of recommendations targeted at national governments as they prepare for transposition into national law.
Construction Site Machinery in the Clean Vehicles Directive
The ongoing recast of the EU Clean Vehicles Directive (CVD) offers a unique opportunity to create this market demand by extending public authorities’ procurement obligations to construction site machinery and equipment. While the scope of the existing legislation has to date been limited to light- and heavyduty road vehicles, there is a clear rationale to expand its provisions to non-road mobile machinery in order to further reduce urban dwellers’ exposure to health damaging levels of air and noise pollution. This paper provides guidance on […]
Russia’s nuclear industry is expanding
Russia’s civilian nuclear industry is expanding. Where the Soviet Union built reactors in countries all over Eastern Europe, Russia is now taking it one step further – to a global scale. Russia is the biggest exporter of nuclear power plants in the world, offering big, favorable loans to governments that want to strengthen their energy […]
Zero Emission Construction Sites: the possibilities and barriers of electric construction machinery
This paper takes a closer look into the potential of electrified construction site machinery, the solutions which exist today, the current policy and market advances in this regard, and goes on to provide some forward looking policy recommendations, drawing on EU legislation that is undergoing reform, and pending transposition at national levels.
Zero Emission Construction Sites: The possibilities and barriers of electric construction machinery – Factsheet
Construction is a fundamental component of human civilisation. It lies at the heart of economic and social development. In fact, the construction industry generates roughly 9% of European GDP and accounts for 18 million jobs. In spite of this, construction sites are also a major source of environmental and human health damage throughout all aspects of the construction process. Combined with increasing urbanisation trends and a fast-growing global population, it goes without saying that construction is here to stay. This calls for the adoption […]
Electro-mobility Platform recommendations to accelerate electric charging infrastructure deployment
Only 20% of passenger car charging is done using public chargers, the rest is done using private chargers at home or at work. As such, the deployment of infrastructure should tackle both the facility to charge publicly and privately in order to provide market certainty and long term stability. This Platform for Electro-mobility brief sets several recommendations for the deployment of infrastructure in the EU.
CCU fuels in the recast Renewable Energy Directive: Letter to Negotiators
In light of the trilogue on the RED II taking place in early May, Bellona has, together with Transport&Environment, Zero Waste Europe, Carbon Market Watch and Sandbag, sent a letter to the negotiators on the inclusion of Carbon Capture and Utilisation (CCU) fuels in the directive. The letter expresses our concern about the inclusion of a wide variety of Carbon Capture and Utilisation (CCU) fuels – we are therefore seeking robust environmental safeguards to protect the integrity of the EU’s climate and energy policy framework. The […]
Virtuous climate ambitions, virtual solutions: Precarious delivery of industrial CO2 capture & storage projects in Norway
This policy brief looks at the role of Norway’s CCS projects and their possible effects on roll-out of CCS projects in Northern and Western Europe. The brief is partly a response to a report by consultancy Atkins on the costs and benefits of the Norwegian CCS project, which has several major shortcomings and is therefore not suitable as a basis for a Norwegian government or parliament decision on investment in a full-scale CCS value chain.
How EU Member States roll-out electric-mobility: Electric charging infrastructure in 2020 and beyond
Sufficient publicly accessible charging infrastructure is a key enabler for the accelerated uptake of electric cars. This briefing by the Platform for Electro-Mobility analyses the current and planned future roll-out of EV charging infrastructure in European Member States, based governments’ plans (National Policy Frameworks) submitted to the European Commission as part of the implementation of the EU Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive.
Reaction Paper on the Clean Vehicles Directive recast
The Platform for Electro-Mobility, of which Bellona is a founding member, welcomes the European Commission (EC) proposal to amend Directive 2009/33/EU on the promotion of clean and energy-efficient road vehicles in public procurement (or so-called Clean Vehicles Directive), and considers it holds potential to set the transport sector on a course to swift decarbonisation and improved air quality in urban centers. This paper calls on the European Parliament and Member States to build upon the Commission’s proposal and deliver a bolder text […]
Bellona is optimistic about lasting cuts in Kola Peninsula emissions
For the first time in nearly 30 years, Bellona is optimistic about lasting cuts in Kola Peninsula SO2 emissions. Read the entire report here: Nornickel and the Kola Peninsula – environmental responsibility in the year of ecology. Nornickel’s plants near the Norwegian border on the Kola Peninsula aim to cut SO2 emissions by 90 per […]
The Nuclear Industry in Ukraine – An overview
This report is the result of an endeavor to make a comprehensive overview of the current state of the Ukrainian nuclear industry. The Ukrainian government has declared that nuclear power will continue to be an important part of the country’s energy mix in the near future.
The Opportunities for Ukraine in a Low-Carbon Future
Ukraine has in recent years dealt with many more challenges than opportunities. The economic situation in the country has fluctuated over the previous decades, varying from times of struggle to renewed growth and to recession again due to external influence. Today the Ukrainian economy still rests on traditional core industries, with exports in the form of agricultural goods, metals and lower value-added products. These sectors are limited in growth potential, and potentially at risk from new disruptive technologies. It is important for Ukraine […]
Building number 5 – Storage for spent nuclear fuel in Andreyeva Bay: Status November 2017
Andreyeva Bay, the former refueling site for nuclear-powered vessels with the Soviet Northern Fleet, has received international attention since the early 90s. This hotspot in the Murmansk region, close to the Russian border with Norway, has been the one of the main objects of an international effort to clean up the radioactive inheritance from the […]
Bellona letter to EFTA Surveillance Authority (ESA) on the importance of leaving Norwegian electric vehicle incentives unchanged
Today, Bellona sent a recommendations letter to ESA (EFTA Surveillance Authority), highlighting the importance of keeping Norwegian electric vehicle (EV) incentives unchanged for next year. According to media sources, ESA is looking into curbing VAT exemption for EVs from the beginning of next year, on grounds that EVs have now become much cheaper to produce […]
Financing Resilient Electric Recharging Infrastructure
In this paper the Platform for Electro-Mobility suggests how the European Commission and Member States can play a key role in stirring investments towards the deployment of future-proof recharging infrastructure. The recommendations are divided into three main categories, namely 1) private domain: buildings; 2) public charging points in urban areas; and 3) electrification along and beyond the TEN-T network. Having lead the Platform’s infrastructure-related work, Bellona has brought together the platform’s members in producing this […]
The Bellona Foundation at UN Climate Change Conference (COP23)
This year’s UN Climate Summit will be held in Bonn, Germany 6 – 17 November. The conference will be convened under the Presidency of Fiji, determined to maintain the momentum of the 2015 Paris Agreement. Bellona will be present and arranging several events, notably on CCS and e-mobility. A program for all Bellona events is available here.
Complaint regarding the Norwegian Petroleum Taxation Act of 1975, as amended in 2005 with regards to the up-front cash flow reimbursement scheme for all direct and indirect exploration expenses
Today, Bellona made a complaint about the Norwegian state to ESA (EFTA Surveillance Authority), in order to put an end to favorable sponsorship of oil and gas companies. Over a ten-year period, Norway has sponsored the oil and gas exploration expenses of non-tax-paying companies with over 90 billion Norwegian kroner (NOK, 9.7 billion Euro).
Factsheet: Taking the Electric Revolution to the Seas
Bellona Europa highlights some major accomplishments in the electrification of the marine transport fleet in its new factsheet. Drawing on Norwegian best practices, the factsheet explores what are the solutions and possible first steps to facilitate this transition, moreover that it is very much real and happening in many parts of the world.
‘Shipping Goes Electric’: a magazine by the Bellona Foundation
Today, the Bellona Foundation launched its own shipping magazine. From battery electric hybrid vessels and shore power developments, to shipwrecking on Asian beaches and plastic pollution in fish: Bellona explores the environmental solutions at seas.
Bellona Europa Reality Check: The ‘Power to Liquids’ Trap
With its Clean Energy Package, the EU is on the verge of repeating costly energy and climate policy failures of the recent past. Attempting to provide a low-carbon transport fuel replacement alternative to conventional biofuels, the European Commission in its revision of the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) proposes a 2030 target for ‘low-emission and renewable fuels’. The proposed target includes so-called ‘’renewable liquid and gaseous transport fuels of non-biological origin’’. This opens the door for massive public […]
RAW Handling in Some EU Countries and Russia. Public Participation
Almost every modern country faces problems with radioactive waste (RAW) disposal, as nuclear
technologies are now used in many areas – power generation, medicine, science, defense, safety
tools, etc. As a result of using these technologies, the world has accumulated about 250 mln m3
of solid RAW and an unknown amount of liquid RAW. Each country solves the problems of
handling RAW (including disposal) according to its government’s abilities and the amount of waste
BellonaBrief: Rethinking the cost of conventionally fueled road transport
Poor air quality, largely resulting from conventionally fueled road transport, is Europe’s largest environmental health hazard, claiming thousands of lives each year. In its newly launched policy brief, Bellona explores the heavy yet unaccounted for human health costs from the fossil car industry and estimates that if these were to be paid by car makers themselves, we would see a doubling in ICE cars price tags. Our conclusions are simple: electro-mobility is the only viable cost-effective approach to drastically reducing damaging air […]
Bellona response to EC consultation on the revision of Clean Vehicles Directive
The European Commission has conducted a public consultation as part of the revision process of Directive 2009/33/EC on the promotion of clean and energy-efficient road vehicles (Clean Vehicles Directive). Bellona shares its views on the topic of public procurement and clear definitions of ‘clean vehicles’ in this response.
Opportunities and Risks of Seaweed Biofuels in Aviation
Today, Bellona publishes its new report on the potential and challenges of using seaweed biofuels in aviation. The report provides comprehensive recommendations for researchers, public authorities and consumers. By mapping existing knowledge and practice, sustainability and development of the technology, Bellona comes to the conclusion that the use of seaweed biofuel can unlock great potentials, while addressing many of the challenges associated with conventional biofuels.
Accelerating Electric Recharging Infrastructure Deployment in Europe
The Platform for Electro-mobility, of which Bellona is a founding member, has today, 28 November 2016, launched a new paper on ‘Accelerating Electric Recharging Infrastructure Deployment in Europe’. Bellona has brought together all 24 members of the Platform, from across industries and transport modes, in producing this well-timed paper: which comes just as EU Member States are delivering national plans for their implementation of the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure (AFI) Directive and just two days prior to the release of the […]
The Energy Union Strategy: a plug-in plan for making Europe the world’s leader in electro-mobility
The Platform for Electro-mobility, of which Bellona is a founding member, has launched its new paper ‘The Energy Union Strategy: a plug-in plan for making Europe the world’s leader in electro-mobility’. This paper identifies measures to ensure that Europe will be the leader on a fast and effective transition to electro-mobility.
Bellona response to EC consultation on CO2 emission performance standards for light duty vehicles
The European Commission has conducted a public consultation as part of the revision process of the EU regulations setting CO2 emission performance standards for new cars and vans (together referred to as light duty vehicles (LDVs)). Bellona shares its views on the topic of fuel economy targets and the uptake of zero-emission vehicles in this response.
BellonaBrief: CCU in the EU ETS: risk of CO2 laundering preventing a permanent CO2 solution
Drastically reducing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is necessary to reach the climate goals of the Paris Agreement. The permanent geological disposal of CO2 captured from industrial facilities, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), provides an essential and achievable avenue for reaching this objective. In this brief, Bellona explains why Carbon Capture and Use/Utilisation methods, except for those allowing for permanent storage of CO2, should be excluded from the ETS.
Manufacturing Our Future: Industries, European Regions, and Climate Action
BRUSSELS – Today, 13 October 2016, Bellona is proud to present its new report “Manufacturing our Future: Industries, European Regions and Climate Action – CO2 Networks for the Ruhr, Rotterdam, Antwerp & the greater Oslo Fjord” at its publication event in Brussels.
BellonaBrief: Brexit Implications on Climate, Energy and Environment
On 24 June 2016 the United Kingdom voted 52% to 48% in a referendum to leave the European Union. Many resources are now likely to be diverted from running the EU and progressing important policies toward instead managing and negotiating the referendum implications. While many uncertainties and questions remain to be addressed, one thing remains certain: Bellona has championed environmental and climate protection in Europe from outside EU membership for over 20 years and will continue to do so. While domestic implications for the UK remain […]
Electro-mobility Platform Recommendations Paper on Decarbonising Transport through Electro-mobility
Electro-mobility offers an unequalled solution to make Europe’s transport more efficient, less dependent on imported energy, low carbon, clean and quiet. Specifically, the electrification of surface transport will enable Member States to meet their greenhouse gas emission reduction targets for 2030; and addresses the public health crisis arising from urban air pollution.
BellonaBrief: Attaining an interoperable EV recharging infrastructure in Europe
2016 will be a decisive year in terms of EU Member States’ preparatory process for the implementation of the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure (AFI) directive. In fact, by November 2016, Member States will have to have submitted their so-called National Policy Frameworks (NPFs), outlining how they aim to go about the directive’s transposition. The months leading up to November will therefore be crucial for creating a common understanding, among Member States as well as EU policy makers, of how best to implement the directive and how to […]
Bellona response to the consultation on the preparation of a new renewable energy directive for the period after 2020
The EU has been a central driving force in the broader adoption of renewable energy technologies worldwide. Policy landmarks such as the EU 2050 Roadmap and the initial EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED) have helped stake direction and secure cost reductions across technologies such as wind and solar power, benefiting markets also outside the EU. Embarking on the REDII (2020-30), the global context is altered, with COP21 mobilising a joint and increased emphasis on global decarbonisation with particular view to adoption of RES as a key path. […]
Sustainable use of resources in the Arctic
The reason why Bellona has written this report is our recognition that there are people living and working in the Arctic and there will be human activity in the foreseeable future. Therefore, it’s important that human activities are properly governed, conducted and monitored. For Arctic operations we need the best practice, the best technology and […]
North Sea to the Rescue: The commercial and industrial opportunities of CO2 storage in the North Sea
CCS is an indispensable component of national and global decarbonisation pathways as recognised by the IPCC, the IEA, and the European Commission. Using estimates of the CO2 required to be stored in the North Sea for Europe to reach its 2050 decarbonisation objectives, Bellona has estimated the size of the future North Sea CO2 storage sector. The CO2 storage sector has the potential to become a major North Sea enterprise, employing 22,000 people by 2030. Countries surrounding the North Sea basin must act to encourage the sectors development and […]
Where will the energy storage mega trend lead us?
Bellona sees energy storage as a required piece of the decarbonisation puzzle. The technology will rapidly become an integral part of European electricity supply systems. The huge disruptive effect of energy storage to the existing energy market is being driven by two trends: the need for energy storage to optimise the deployment of renewable energy sources on the one hand, and the high return potential for manufactures, operators and home owners, on the other. This report was launched at the high-level event ‘Energy storage – the […]
BellonaBrief: IPCC 5th Climate Assessment Report: An unequivocal call for action on (Bio-)CCS
The latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 5AR, 2014) issued a stark warning: to stand a reasonable chance of avoiding disastrous climate change, we have to remain within a ‘safe’ level of CO2 emissions so that average global temperature rise is limited to 2°C. Because more than half of the CO2 ‘budget’ that allows us to remain within this threshold has already been used and current rates will exhaust the remainder within 25 years, the IPCC’s scenarios now rely on negative emissions to keep temperature […]
BellonaBrief: Why an electrified transport sector needs to form a core component of the Energy Union
Transport constitutes a large and untapped sector for significant amount of cost effective mitigation potential. Meeting the EU’s target of reducing CO2 emissions from transport by 60% and of eliminating the use of fossil fuels in cars by 2050 will, however, necessitate significant and immediate efforts. Bellona sees electric vehicles (EVs), in particular, as representing one of the most promising technologies for cutting CO2 emissions, reducing petroleum reliance and improving local air quality. EVs will, furthermore, help to optimise the […]
UPDATED SCHEDULE: Bellona at COP 21 in Paris: What will be on?
In order to realise the Paris agreement and the climate pledges of more than 150 countries, we need closer cooperation between actors, increased focus on knowledge sharing and faster industrialisation of innovative solutions. Bellona and CICERO, with the help of Yara and the Norwegian government, has established Connection Point – a pavilion and delegation room […]
BellonaBrief: The carbon negative solution – incentivising Bio-CCS in Europe
The latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 5AR, 2014) issued a stark warning: to stand a reasonable chance of avoiding disastrous climate change, we have to remain within a ‘safe’ level of CO2 emissions so that average global temperature rise is limited to 2°C. Doing so will require carbon negative solutions like Bio-CCS/BECCS.
eRoute71: Bellona’s efforts in building re-charging infrastructure for EVs in Norway
One of the key barriers preventing the wider uptake of EVs across EU Member States today is their perceived limited driving range. The prospect of running out of battery without any possibility of re-charging can act to discourage consumers from purchasing EVs. In recognition of this barrier, Bellona, together with Salto Ladestasjoner AS company has established the eRoute 71 company which aims to establish a robust charging-infrastructure for EVs in Norway and the Nordic countries, and thus assist Norway and the EU in achieving their climate […]
BellonaBrief: The Emission Testing Gap – Why business as usual for the conventional car industry cannot continue
The recent revelations concerning Volkswagen (VW) having equipped around 11 million of its vehicles with defeat devices to allow its fleet to produce artificially low NOx emission results when the test is conducted triggered a broader investigation into the entire car maker industry. This in turn confirmed Bellona’s long-held assumptions about fraudulent practices and test manipulations being commonplace across the entire car industry. Not only are further car makers being added to the list of cheaters, but the practice has been found to also […]
Feedback to the Commission’s proposal for revision of the EU ETS
The IPCC’s 5th Assessment Report makes clear the necessity of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) and negative emissions, attained via Bio-CCS, in halting global average temperature rise below 2°C. The Report warns that the exclusion of this technology from the mitigation portfolio would entail abatement costs more than doubling. Moreover, it is clear that the large emissions from energy-intensive industries like steel, cement and chemicals cannot be deeply reduced without CCS. In the light of these facts, the slow deployment of CCS in Europe […]
BellonaBrief: CO2 Utilisation by mineralisation – much ado about nothing
No form of CO2 use should be considered a substitute for permanent geological storage of CO2. Some forms of CO2 use, such as EOR or EGR, can constitute or contribute to necessary CO2 removal infrastructure and therefore play a role in developing CO2 storage. However, other uses such as mineralisation do not appear to offer any such rationale as an alternative to geological CO2 storage. This brief takes a particular look at CO2 use through mineralisation.
Bellona Response to Consultation on the Effort Sharing Decision
Given that the Effort Sharing Decision (ESD) currently regulates more than half of the Union’s total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, it is therefore of crucial importance to ensure that significant incentives and financial support are provided for climate mitigation initiatives in the ESD sectors. Bellona sees the transport sector in particular as a large and untapped sector for significant amount of cost effective mitigation potential. Even though a variety of clean vehicle technologies and fuels are in development and use, Bellona sees EVs […]
BellonaBrief – Electromobility in the EU: State of Play and Way Forward
Currently, passenger cars alone are responsible for over 15% of total CO2 emissions in the EU. The global car fleet is predicted to double from 800 million to 1.6 billion vehicles by 2030. In view of goals to decarbonise transport, meet climate change objectives and reduce air pollution, this calls for technological advancements to ensure sustainable mobility in the long term. There are a variety of clean vehicle technologies and fuels in development and use, but electric vehicles (EVs) represent one of the most promising technologies for […]
A future CO2 economy: the case of Norway
Bellona has prepared a six-point list on how Norway can develop a CO2 economy which tackles emissions reductions nationally and simultaneously develops CCS as an industry in Europe. The report was in December 2014 sent out for consultation to around 400 Norwegian stakeholders and was in January 2015 updated according to comments from a wide academic community. Bellona recommends that the Norwegian government expands its CCS strategy with the purpose of establishing a profitable value chain for CO2 storage and CCS.
Bellona Response to the Consultation on Revision of the EU Emission Trading System Directive
In October 2014 the European Council reached an agreement on a 2030 Climate and Energy Framework, featuring a binding domestic target for reducing greenhouse gas emissions of at least 40% in 2030 as compared to 1990. To meet this target, the European Council agreed that the emissions in the EU Emission Trading System (ETS) should be reduced, compared to 2005, by 43%. The purpose of this EC-conducted consultation was to gather stakeholders’ views on key elements, including free allocation to industry, the establishment of a modernisation […]
Bellona Response to Energy Strategy of Ukraine 2035
Ukraine is at present in an unenviable position. Conflict with Russia is jeopardizing national security and the security of the country’s energy supply. Ratcheting up the pressure on the country is Kiev’s need to rapidly alter its energy legislation, bringing it into accord with that of the European Union and the European Energy Community. The Bellona Foundation, a Norwegian-based energy and environmental NGO, has started a three-year project in Ukraine to assist in the ongoing transition of the country’s energy supply and industrial […]
Industrial Pollution in Russia’s Barents Sea Areas
The Russian part of the Barents Region comprises the Murmansk region, the Arkhangelsk region, the Republic of Karelia, the Nenets Autonomous District and the Komi Republic and constitutes ¾ of the entire area of the Barents Region. These areas, along with the other northern territories, play a significant role in the economy and strategic development […]
BellonaBrief – Electric Vehicles: The Norwegian Experience in Overcoming Barriers
This brief sets out the Norwegian path to the world’s highest penetration of electric vehicles (EVs), much of which can be attributed to Bellona’s decades of advocacy on the topic. The brief also takes a look at the situation at European level.
Remediation of Nuclear and Radiation Legacy Site in Russia’s Northwest
Some 23,000 spent nuclear fuel rods from submarines and 32 tons of radioactive waste housed at Andreyeva Bay, 50 kilometers from the Norwegian border, says part of Bellona’s new report on nuclear remediation projects in Northwest Russia.
Bellona Europa response to the stakeholder consultation on Emission Trading System (ETS) post-2020 carbon leakage provisions
Carbon leakage is a term used to describe situations where, as a result of costs incurred from the implementation of climate policies, certain businesses relocate production to countries with less stringent (or no) climate policies in place. The European Commission has carried out a public consultation on the different options for a system to avoid carbon leakage after 2020 for sectors covered by the EU ETS. The results of this consultation will feed into further work on the 2030 Climate and Energy Policy Framework regarding the determination […]
Could capacity markets derail EU climate progress?
The European energy supply is changing, with renewables supplying more of the energy needs of business and consumers. However, much of the renewable energy being deployed is intermittent sources of electricity, only providing to the grid when resources such as wind, solar or wave are available. Liberalisation of the electricity market has brought with it […]
Comprehensive ETS Reform
During the first two trading periods of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) we have observed a low and volatile Emission Unit Allowance (EUA) price, which has failed to incentivise sufficient abatement efforts and investments in clean technologies. Bellona’s views on the European Commission-proposed Market Stability Reserve and on the way forward are outlined in the brief on ‘Comprehensive ETS Reform’.
Bellona Europa response to the CCS Directive Review Survey
Five years after the European Commission passed the CCS Directive, it requires review to assess whether it still provides adequate regulatory framework for CCS in the EU. Article 38 of the Directive calls for an evaluation of its effectiveness, efficiency, coherence, relevance and added value – Bellona’s views on which are outlined in this response.
Biomass with CO2 Capture and Storage (Bio-CCS), the way forward for Europe
Bellona is a Steering Committee member of the European Biofuels Technology Platform (EBTP). In addition to this, the EBTP and the ZEP (Zero Emissions Platform – EU technology platform for CCS, for which Bellona has the vice presidency) on Bellona’s initiative together created a joint taskforce (JTF) on biomass and CCS in early 2011, with Bellona’s President Frederic […]
Traditional and Integrated Aquaculture
Download the report here. Aquaculture is an industry that provokes strong emotions in many people. While production and value creation is sizeable, the industry is criticised not least for spreading pollution, poor use of resources and threats to wild salmon. In 2003 Bellona published the report “Environmental Status of Norwegian Aquaculture”. Based on scientific fact, […]
Ukraine CCS: Ukrainian perspectives on industry and energy security
Ukraine is a country in the middle of a turbulent transition toward developing energy sources free from Russian influence. Bellona has identified that in order for that transition to be successful, CCS must play a critical role in the country’s energy structure, which will continue to be highly dependent on fossil fuels. Ukraine is one of […]
The Bellona Foundation’s Response to the European Commission’s Consultative Communication on CCS
Bellona submitted its response the European Commission’s Consultative Communication on CCS, outlining the necessary steps which need to be taken for CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) to be taken to the next level in Europe. Bellona recommends Member States to take the lead up till 2020, at which point a core EU CCS policy framework, […]
Response to the European Commission’s Green Paper on a 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy Policies
The European Commission’s 2030 Green Paper, released on 27 March, invited stakeholders to take part in a consultative process towards the Union’s climate and energy policies after 2020. The new policy framework towards 2030 is regarded as an important tool for the EU to reach its target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95% by […]
Down load the report here. The objective of this report is to show how a regenerative hybrid-electric propulsion system can dramatically improve the economy as well as the experience during sailing of medium sized boats that operate by both motor and by sail. This report shows how these problems can be solved by using regenerative […]
CCS Market Incentives Report
The CCS Market Incentives Report has been prepared by the Bellona Foundation to fuel the debate on ways to incentivize CO2 Capture and Storage in the European Union. The Report looks at ways of effectively incentivizing CCS demonstration and deployment in the EU. It presents and evaluates over a dozen policy options in terms of […]
Nuclear Fissile Materials
This is the second and updated edition of the report Nuclear Fissile Materials. The first edition of Nuclear Fissile Materials was prepared and published by Bellona’s experts in late 2011. Authors: Alexander Nikitin; Prof. Vladimir Kuznetsov, D.Sc. Eng.; Andrei Zolotkov; Valery Menshchikov, Ph.D. Eng.; Alexei Shchukin, Ph.D. Chem.
Our future is carbon negative: A CCS roadmap for Romania
This report has been published by the Bellona Foundation to fuel the debate in Romania on how to meet its emission and energy challenge. The report shows Romania’s unique potential to become CO2 negative, by not only producing electricity in a CO2-neutral way but actually absorbing already emitted CO2 from the atmosphere. It is the result of […]
The Power of Choice: A CCS Roadmap for Hungary
This publication was prepared by the Bellona Foundation to fuel the debate in Hungary on how to meet its emission and energy challenges. By studying three potential emission trajectories to 2050, it offers a long-term appraisal of the economic and environmental consequences of broad CCS application in the Hungarian power and heavy industry sectors. Publicly […]
CCS readiness at Šoštanj: Ticking boxes or preparing for the future?
The Šoštanj project is the first case where a CCS feasibility assessment was carried out as a result of the CCS Directive, and the content of this CCS assessment was then challenged directly in front of the Commission. Unless the Commission provides further guidance to the interpretation of article 33.1 of the CCS Directive, there […]
Floating nuclear power plants
The need for this report arose from the fact that in the past several years, the Russian State Nuclear Corporation Rosatom – the top authority governing the Russian nuclear industry, including its nuclear energy-generating sector – has been engaged in a massive propaganda campaign extolling the virtues of low-capacity nuclear power plants (LCNPPs), complete with […]
Economic aspects of small-scale renewable energy development in remote settlements of the Kola Peninsula
Murmansk Region, a large administrative area on the Kola Peninsula in Russia’s European North, has a broad range of non-conventional renewable energy sources at its disposal – the sun and wind, small rivers, tides and ocean waves, etc. Each of these resources has its own distinct seasonal characteristics. For instance, the supply of solar energy […]
Insuring Energy Independance – A CCS Roadmap for Poland
This publication has been prepared by the Bellona Foundation to fuel the debate in Poland on how to meet its emission and energy challenge. It is the result of a year’s work both in Poland and Oslo. The Bellona Foundation would like to thank the European Climate Foundation, the Global CCS Institute and other sponsors […]
Norilsk Nickel: The Soviet Legacy of Industrial Pollution
The present report is an update of many years of work by the international environmental foundation Bellona to prevent the negative impacts to the environment and public health caused by plants from Norilsk Nickel Mining and Metallurgical Company (MMC).
Improving the Regulatory Framework, optimizing organization of the CCS value chain and ﬁnancial incentives for CO2-EOR in Europe
The article is a result of scientific work in the ECCO project, a project which received funding from the European Community`s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013). The main objective of the project was to facilitate strategic decision making regarding early and future implementation of CO2 value chains. Europe is the world region with the most comprehensive pricing of CO2 emissions. […]
A bridge to a greener Greece – a realistic assessment of CCS potential
This report aims at identifying three possible pathways Greece may take to respond to its emission mitigation challenge through 2050. Unless the price of carbon remains at today’s levels, an unlikely prospect given current EU policy, CCS will become a major contributor to Greece’s efforts to meet its energy demands while at the same time attaining its climate policy targets.
CCS in the Nordic countries in a renewable/climate neutral future (2050)
The study looks at the role and possible contribution of CCS in a 2050 renewable/CO2 neutral Nordic region, with the total energy perspective in mind. It examines the full energy picture and how all emissions need to be considered, both large stationary that could have CCS and all other emissions. Mapping of current energy use and emissions in each […]
Sahara Forest Project: Stage 1
The Sahara Forest Project is a unique combination of proven environmental technologies, such as solar termal power, modern biomass production and the Seawater Greenhouse. The resulting synergies enable restorative growth in the world’s most arid regions. Find out more by downloading the project folder below.
Guidelines for public consultation and participation in CCS projects
The purpose of the guidelines is to set out preliminary recommendations for the development of safe and effective projects. They are directed towards those who may be involved in decisions on a proposed project, such as developers, regulators, financiers and project operators.
CCS mapping in nine EU Member States in 2009 – Final reports
Bellona Europa has carried out a screening of the status and potential for CCS implementation in in nine EU Member States. Below you can download the final reports mapping the political landscape of CCS in nine EU member states in Eastern and Southern Europe. The reports will serve as a basis for further engagement by Bellona – […]
Burying CO2: The New EU Directive on Geological Storage of CO2 from a Norwegian Perspectice
The purpose of this study is to analyse the legal framework established by the Directive on geological storage of CO2 in order to anticipate some of the legal issues and challenges that Norway might meet when implementing the Directive in its national legislation.
Bellona Position Paper on CCS and Emission Performance Standards (EPS)
This paper argues that the regulations and incentives neccessary to make CCS commercially viable by 2020 are: (1) adaptation of regulations that allows and regulate CO2 capture and storage, (2) incentives to ensure demonstration projects are established by 2015, and (3) market regulations to establish a market for CCS from 2020.
A model for the CO2 capture potential
This paper documents the global potential for CCS. If CCS is widely deployed the global CO2 emissions can be reduced by 236 billion tonnes by 2050. The calculations indicate that wide implementation of CCS can reduce CO2 emissions by 54% in the EU and 33% globally in 2050 compared to emission levels today. Such a reduction in […]
The Potential and Barriers for Renewable Energy
An increased implementation of renewable energy productions is slowed down by economic, technical, land use, social and environmental barriers. Especially the technical, environmental and social barriers related to renewable energy sources indicate the continued domination of fossil energy sources also in 2030. The objective of this paper is to analyze the potential and barriers for increased […]
Scenarios for Global CO2 Emissions
The objective of this paper is to analyze how global energy demand and CO2 emissions will develop based on the assumptions and scenarios established by the IEA. This paper will also present the suggested actions by IEA for reducing global CO2 emissions. Furthermore, the scenarios from IEA will be compared to scenarios established by the […]
CO2 Storage: Case Study on the Sleipner Gas field in Norway
Bellona has published the report “Carbon Dioxide Storage: Geological Security and Environmental Issues – Case Study on the Sleipner Gas field in Norway”. The report documents how safe storage of CO2 can be performed by evaluating CO2 storage at the Sleipner field.
Fact sheet: Security of CO2 storage in Norway
Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) in deep saline aquifers is implemented fullscale at the Sleipner gas field in Norway. The offshore gas field Sleipner, in the middle of the North Sea, has been injecting 1 million ton CO2 per year since 1996 without leakage.
How to close the gap between global energy demand and renewable energy production
Energy demand scenarios show that there will be a gap between total global energy demand and renewable energy production over the next decades. Therefore, a short-term strategy must be implemented to minimize GHG emissions from existing energy production. This can be achieved by developing a carbon dioxide (CO2) value chain including infrastructure for CO2 capture, transport and safe storage.
The Arctic Nuclear Challenge
The third Bellona report on the Northwest Russian nuclear crisis suggests solutions as well as giving further details on the current situation. Several projects are proposed, in order to solve the problems of further radioactive contamination and the ensuing adverse health effects to the people living in the Arctic areas.
The Russian Northern Fleet: Sources of Radioactive contamination
The report gives a thorough overview of the sources of potential releases of radioactivity which could harm the public health and the environment. The problems of nuclear waste and disused nuclear submarines is a product of the arms race and the cold war. Russia continues to build new nuclear submarines, but there are very few provisions being made to properly store old nuclear submarines and develop sufficient storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel and other radadioactive waste.