The March 2022 seizure by Russian troops of the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant in Southeastern Ukraine has forced six nuclear reactors and pools of spent nuclear fuel onto the front lines of the biggest land war in Europe since World War II. It’s something the world nuclear energy community never thought it would see — […]
Publications and archive
Environment & Rights Magazine
We put this issue together of Environment and Rights under unusual circumstances — Bellona was declared by Russian officials to be an “undesirable” organization. You will find a statement by Bellona and the position of its employees on the following page, along with a list of safety recommendations for our readers. We on the editorial […]
Environment & Rights Magazine
This is the first issue or our quarterly magazine Environment & Rights published since Russia invaded Ukraine. In it, several of our authors, writing from Ukraine, Russia and the United States take stock of what nine months of bombardment has wrought on the landscape of one of Europe’s biggest nations. The article cover topics ranging […]
Elimination of the Cold War’s Nuclear Heritage: 20 years of international cooperation
A little more than 20 years ago, in Murmansk, Russia, the relics of the Cold War were still close at hand. Nealy 200 nuclear submarines, the calling card of the once-feared Soviet Navy, sat rusting at dockside at bases throughout the country’s Northwest, their reactors still loaded with nuclear fuel. Whether they would sink, possibly […]
Russian Nuclear Power, status as of January, 2021
For another consecutive year, Russia’s civilian nuclear industry is expanding. While the Soviet Union built reactors in countries all over Eastern Europe, Russia’s Rosatom is looking to go global. Russia is currently biggest exporter of nuclear power plants in the world, offering sizable loans to foreign governments looking to get in on the nuclear energy […]
Policy Brief: Recycled Carbon Fuels in the Renewable Energy Directive
Brussels, 16th June – Ahead of the stakeholder meeting on the Renewable Energy Directive on 18th-19th June, Bellona Europa, Zero Waste Europe and Rethink Plastic Alliance launch the policy brief “Recycled Carbon Fuels in the Renewable Energy Directive“. The revised Renewable Energy Directive (REDII) establishes a common framework for the promotion of energy from renewable […]
Consultation Response – EU Hydrogen Strategy – June 2020
The EU Hydrogen strategy will explore how clean hydrogen can help reduce the EU economy’s carbon emissions in a cost-effective way. It is in line with the EU’s goal – set out in the European Green Deal – to be climate-neutral by 2050. It should also help the EU recover from COVID-19’s economic impact. In […]
EU must lead on robust and coherent terminology for Carbon Dioxide Removal
To achieve the target of net-zero emissions by 2050 it is no longer enough to simply reduce emissions, we will also have to physically remove CO2 from the atmosphere. Bellona Europa is therefore increasing its efforts to facilitate and ensure a responsible deployment and regulation of practices with permanently remove CO2 from the atmosphere. The […]
Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Extension: A creeping catastrophe
Any discussion of nuclear disasters brings events like Chernobyl and Fukushima to mind. But the civilian nuclear industry could be facing a quieter nuclear failure. Simply put, the world’s nuclear reactors are getting dangerously old. Yet more and more often, countries operating nuclear reactors are deciding to run them for longer than they were designed […]
Cities Aim at Zero Emissions
Together with The Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance (CNCA) NIRAS and five Northern European capitals , we worked on the report “Cities Aim at Zero Emissions: How carbon capture, storage and utilisation can help cities go carbon neutral”. The report overviews the latest CCSU technologies, the current progress made by the five cities, and business models […]
Restoring Europe. The European Green Deal and the future of Europe
Bellona is deeply invested in the future of Europe and the importance of European leadership in tackling climate change on a global scale. The world’s other major emitters – China, the US, Russia, Brazil, and more – each, in their own way, are now looking to Europe as a test case for just how serious […]
Nornickel – Environmental Ambitions
Norilsk Nickel, also known as Nornickel is a world-leading producer of nickel, palladium and other metals. It has its key company assets in the Russian Arctic, on the Taymyr and Kola Peninsula. On the Kola Peninsula, company assets are operated by a subsidiary known as Kola Mining and Metallurgical Company (Kola MMC). Any mining and […]
Hazardous waste management in Russia and the EU
Read the paper here (PDF). This working paper was prepared by Bellona as a part of the project Quality Journalism for Environmental Activists in Russia and the EU. The project is supported by the EU– Russia Civil Society Forum (www.eu-russia-csf.org) and its donors.
Questions of handling the legacy of radioactive contamination at the Mayak Production Association
In this paper, Bellona examines available environmental impact study documents released at a public hearing and a Strategic Master Plan for decontamination. Questions of handling the legacy of radioactive contamination at the Mayak Production Association (pdf)
The Russian Nuclear Industry and Public Oversight
The purpose of this overview is to draw attention to the fact that such an important and complex industry as the nuclear industry cannot successfully operate, evolve, and gain public acceptance without public oversight, as stipulated by Russian law. Therefore, efforts should be made in the nuclear industry to construct a system of legal regulations […]
Understanding our Future
Climate change is happening. Human activity has caused and continues to contribute to towards it; the current and projected severity of its impacts has increased; and it remains an imminently solvable or manageable problem if the required actions are taken. Our ability to understand the interaction between global climate, energy, and earth systems is based […]
An Industry’s Guide to Climate Action
Did you know that European industry emissions are already larger than total coal power emissions in the EU? Did you also know that one in five jobs in Europe is in industry (50 million in total), which generates almost a quarter of Europe’s GDP? This means that 20% of Europe’s workforce and the basis of […]
Russia’s nuclear industry is expanding
Russia’s civilian nuclear industry is expanding. Where the Soviet Union built reactors in countries all over Eastern Europe, Russia is now taking it one step further – to a global scale. Russia is the biggest exporter of nuclear power plants in the world, offering big, favorable loans to governments that want to strengthen their energy […]
Bellona is optimistic about lasting cuts in Kola Peninsula emissions
For the first time in nearly 30 years, Bellona is optimistic about lasting cuts in Kola Peninsula SO2 emissions. Read the entire report here: Nornickel and the Kola Peninsula – environmental responsibility in the year of ecology. Nornickel’s plants near the Norwegian border on the Kola Peninsula aim to cut SO2 emissions by 90 per […]
Building number 5 – Storage for spent nuclear fuel in Andreyeva Bay: Status November 2017
Andreyeva Bay, the former refueling site for nuclear-powered vessels with the Soviet Northern Fleet, has received international attention since the early 90s. This hotspot in the Murmansk region, close to the Russian border with Norway, has been the one of the main objects of an international effort to clean up the radioactive inheritance from the […]
Bellona letter to EFTA Surveillance Authority (ESA) on the importance of leaving Norwegian electric vehicle incentives unchanged
Today, Bellona sent a recommendations letter to ESA (EFTA Surveillance Authority), highlighting the importance of keeping Norwegian electric vehicle (EV) incentives unchanged for next year. According to media sources, ESA is looking into curbing VAT exemption for EVs from the beginning of next year, on grounds that EVs have now become much cheaper to produce […]
The Bellona Foundation at UN Climate Change Conference (COP23)
This year’s UN Climate Summit will be held in Bonn, Germany 6 – 17 November. The conference will be convened under the Presidency of Fiji, determined to maintain the momentum of the 2015 Paris Agreement. Bellona will be present and arranging several events, notably on CCS and e-mobility. A program for all Bellona events is available here.
Complaint regarding the Norwegian Petroleum Taxation Act of 1975, as amended in 2005 with regards to the up-front cash flow reimbursement scheme for all direct and indirect exploration expenses
Sustainable use of resources in the Arctic
The reason why Bellona has written this report is our recognition that there are people living and working in the Arctic and there will be human activity in the foreseeable future. Therefore, it’s important that human activities are properly governed, conducted and monitored. For Arctic operations we need the best practice, the best technology and […]
UPDATED SCHEDULE: Bellona at COP 21 in Paris: What will be on?
In order to realise the Paris agreement and the climate pledges of more than 150 countries, we need closer cooperation between actors, increased focus on knowledge sharing and faster industrialisation of innovative solutions. Bellona and CICERO, with the help of Yara and the Norwegian government, has established Connection Point – a pavilion and delegation room […]
Industrial Pollution in Russia’s Barents Sea Areas
The Russian part of the Barents Region comprises the Murmansk region, the Arkhangelsk region, the Republic of Karelia, the Nenets Autonomous District and the Komi Republic and constitutes ¾ of the entire area of the Barents Region. These areas, along with the other northern territories, play a significant role in the economy and strategic development […]
Remediation of Nuclear and Radiation Legacy Site in Russia’s Northwest
Some 23,000 spent nuclear fuel rods from submarines and 32 tons of radioactive waste housed at Andreyeva Bay, 50 kilometers from the Norwegian border, says part of Bellona’s new report on nuclear remediation projects in Northwest Russia.
Could capacity markets derail EU climate progress?
The European energy supply is changing, with renewables supplying more of the energy needs of business and consumers. However, much of the renewable energy being deployed is intermittent sources of electricity, only providing to the grid when resources such as wind, solar or wave are available. Liberalisation of the electricity market has brought with it […]
Biomass with CO2 Capture and Storage (Bio-CCS), the way forward for Europe
Bellona is a Steering Committee member of the European Biofuels Technology Platform (EBTP). In addition to this, the EBTP and the ZEP (Zero Emissions Platform – EU technology platform for CCS, for which Bellona has the vice presidency) on Bellona’s initiative together created a joint taskforce (JTF) on biomass and CCS in early 2011, with Bellona’s President Frederic […]
Traditional and Integrated Aquaculture
Download the report here. Aquaculture is an industry that provokes strong emotions in many people. While production and value creation is sizeable, the industry is criticised not least for spreading pollution, poor use of resources and threats to wild salmon. In 2003 Bellona published the report “Environmental Status of Norwegian Aquaculture”. Based on scientific fact, […]
Ukraine CCS: Ukrainian perspectives on industry and energy security
Ukraine is a country in the middle of a turbulent transition toward developing energy sources free from Russian influence. Bellona has identified that in order for that transition to be successful, CCS must play a critical role in the country’s energy structure, which will continue to be highly dependent on fossil fuels. Ukraine is one of […]
The Bellona Foundation’s Response to the European Commission’s Consultative Communication on CCS
Bellona submitted its response the European Commission’s Consultative Communication on CCS, outlining the necessary steps which need to be taken for CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) to be taken to the next level in Europe. Bellona recommends Member States to take the lead up till 2020, at which point a core EU CCS policy framework, […]
Response to the European Commission’s Green Paper on a 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy Policies
The European Commission’s 2030 Green Paper, released on 27 March, invited stakeholders to take part in a consultative process towards the Union’s climate and energy policies after 2020. The new policy framework towards 2030 is regarded as an important tool for the EU to reach its target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95% by […]
Down load the report here. The objective of this report is to show how a regenerative hybrid-electric propulsion system can dramatically improve the economy as well as the experience during sailing of medium sized boats that operate by both motor and by sail. This report shows how these problems can be solved by using regenerative […]
CCS Market Incentives Report
The CCS Market Incentives Report has been prepared by the Bellona Foundation to fuel the debate on ways to incentivize CO2 Capture and Storage in the European Union. The Report looks at ways of effectively incentivizing CCS demonstration and deployment in the EU. It presents and evaluates over a dozen policy options in terms of […]
Nuclear Fissile Materials
This is the second and updated edition of the report Nuclear Fissile Materials. The first edition of Nuclear Fissile Materials was prepared and published by Bellona’s experts in late 2011. Authors: Alexander Nikitin; Prof. Vladimir Kuznetsov, D.Sc. Eng.; Andrei Zolotkov; Valery Menshchikov, Ph.D. Eng.; Alexei Shchukin, Ph.D. Chem.
Our future is carbon negative: A CCS roadmap for Romania
This report has been published by the Bellona Foundation to fuel the debate in Romania on how to meet its emission and energy challenge. The report shows Romania’s unique potential to become CO2 negative, by not only producing electricity in a CO2-neutral way but actually absorbing already emitted CO2 from the atmosphere. It is the result of […]
The Power of Choice: A CCS Roadmap for Hungary
This publication was prepared by the Bellona Foundation to fuel the debate in Hungary on how to meet its emission and energy challenges. By studying three potential emission trajectories to 2050, it offers a long-term appraisal of the economic and environmental consequences of broad CCS application in the Hungarian power and heavy industry sectors. Publicly […]
CCS readiness at Šoštanj: Ticking boxes or preparing for the future?
The Šoštanj project is the first case where a CCS feasibility assessment was carried out as a result of the CCS Directive, and the content of this CCS assessment was then challenged directly in front of the Commission. Unless the Commission provides further guidance to the interpretation of article 33.1 of the CCS Directive, there […]
Floating nuclear power plants
The need for this report arose from the fact that in the past several years, the Russian State Nuclear Corporation Rosatom – the top authority governing the Russian nuclear industry, including its nuclear energy-generating sector – has been engaged in a massive propaganda campaign extolling the virtues of low-capacity nuclear power plants (LCNPPs), complete with […]
Economic aspects of small-scale renewable energy development in remote settlements of the Kola Peninsula
Murmansk Region, a large administrative area on the Kola Peninsula in Russia’s European North, has a broad range of non-conventional renewable energy sources at its disposal – the sun and wind, small rivers, tides and ocean waves, etc. Each of these resources has its own distinct seasonal characteristics. For instance, the supply of solar energy […]
Insuring Energy Independance – A CCS Roadmap for Poland
This publication has been prepared by the Bellona Foundation to fuel the debate in Poland on how to meet its emission and energy challenge. It is the result of a year’s work both in Poland and Oslo. The Bellona Foundation would like to thank the European Climate Foundation, the Global CCS Institute and other sponsors […]
Norilsk Nickel: The Soviet Legacy of Industrial Pollution
The present report is an update of many years of work by the international environmental foundation Bellona to prevent the negative impacts to the environment and public health caused by plants from Norilsk Nickel Mining and Metallurgical Company (MMC).
Improving the Regulatory Framework, optimizing organization of the CCS value chain and ﬁnancial incentives for CO2-EOR in Europe
The article is a result of scientific work in the ECCO project, a project which received funding from the European Community`s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013). The main objective of the project was to facilitate strategic decision making regarding early and future implementation of CO2 value chains. Europe is the world region with the most comprehensive pricing of CO2 emissions. […]
CCS in the Nordic countries in a renewable/climate neutral future (2050)
The study looks at the role and possible contribution of CCS in a 2050 renewable/CO2 neutral Nordic region, with the total energy perspective in mind. It examines the full energy picture and how all emissions need to be considered, both large stationary that could have CCS and all other emissions. Mapping of current energy use and emissions in each […]
Sahara Forest Project: Stage 1
The Sahara Forest Project is a unique combination of proven environmental technologies, such as solar termal power, modern biomass production and the Seawater Greenhouse. The resulting synergies enable restorative growth in the world’s most arid regions. Find out more by downloading the project folder below.
Guidelines for public consultation and participation in CCS projects
The purpose of the guidelines is to set out preliminary recommendations for the development of safe and effective projects. They are directed towards those who may be involved in decisions on a proposed project, such as developers, regulators, financiers and project operators.
CCS mapping in nine EU Member States in 2009 – Final reports
Bellona Europa has carried out a screening of the status and potential for CCS implementation in in nine EU Member States. Below you can download the final reports mapping the political landscape of CCS in nine EU member states in Eastern and Southern Europe. The reports will serve as a basis for further engagement by Bellona – […]
Burying CO2: The New EU Directive on Geological Storage of CO2 from a Norwegian Perspectice
The purpose of this study is to analyse the legal framework established by the Directive on geological storage of CO2 in order to anticipate some of the legal issues and challenges that Norway might meet when implementing the Directive in its national legislation.
Bellona Position Paper on CCS and Emission Performance Standards (EPS)
This paper argues that the regulations and incentives neccessary to make CCS commercially viable by 2020 are: (1) adaptation of regulations that allows and regulate CO2 capture and storage, (2) incentives to ensure demonstration projects are established by 2015, and (3) market regulations to establish a market for CCS from 2020.
A model for the CO2 capture potential
This paper documents the global potential for CCS. If CCS is widely deployed the global CO2 emissions can be reduced by 236 billion tonnes by 2050. The calculations indicate that wide implementation of CCS can reduce CO2 emissions by 54% in the EU and 33% globally in 2050 compared to emission levels today. Such a reduction in […]
The Potential and Barriers for Renewable Energy
An increased implementation of renewable energy productions is slowed down by economic, technical, land use, social and environmental barriers. Especially the technical, environmental and social barriers related to renewable energy sources indicate the continued domination of fossil energy sources also in 2030. The objective of this paper is to analyze the potential and barriers for increased […]
Scenarios for Global CO2 Emissions
The objective of this paper is to analyze how global energy demand and CO2 emissions will develop based on the assumptions and scenarios established by the IEA. This paper will also present the suggested actions by IEA for reducing global CO2 emissions. Furthermore, the scenarios from IEA will be compared to scenarios established by the […]
CO2 Storage: Case Study on the Sleipner Gas field in Norway
Bellona has published the report “Carbon Dioxide Storage: Geological Security and Environmental Issues – Case Study on the Sleipner Gas field in Norway”. The report documents how safe storage of CO2 can be performed by evaluating CO2 storage at the Sleipner field.
Fact sheet: Security of CO2 storage in Norway
Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) in deep saline aquifers is implemented fullscale at the Sleipner gas field in Norway. The offshore gas field Sleipner, in the middle of the North Sea, has been injecting 1 million ton CO2 per year since 1996 without leakage.
How to close the gap between global energy demand and renewable energy production
Energy demand scenarios show that there will be a gap between total global energy demand and renewable energy production over the next decades. Therefore, a short-term strategy must be implemented to minimize GHG emissions from existing energy production. This can be achieved by developing a carbon dioxide (CO2) value chain including infrastructure for CO2 capture, transport and safe storage.
The Arctic Nuclear Challenge
The third Bellona report on the Northwest Russian nuclear crisis suggests solutions as well as giving further details on the current situation. Several projects are proposed, in order to solve the problems of further radioactive contamination and the ensuing adverse health effects to the people living in the Arctic areas.