To avoid out of control climate change, we must limit global average temperature to 2°C relative to pre-industrial levels. This will require deep decarbonisation and a suite of technologies, including renewables, energy efficiency and tackling emissions from industry and fossil power sources with CCS.
CCS – Carbon Capture and Storage – is a set of technologies that reduce CO2 emissions from point sources like fossil power plants and industrial facilities. The CO2 is captured before being transported to an underground storage site.
The greatest source of CO2 emissions are big coal power plants that emit large volumes of CO2 directly into the atmosphere. However, gas power plants, steel, cement and other large industrial plants will also need to deploy CCS in a carbon constrained world.
The first injection of CO2 in an oil field in Texas, USA. The CO2 was used to enhance oil recovery (EOR).
The whole concept of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) was for the first time presented by Norwegian researchers.
The Sleipner project in the North Sea opens as the world’s first large scale commercial CO2 storage project, storing one millionton CO2 annually. CO2 is separated from natural gas produced from the Sleipner field and injected into the Utsira formation, an aquifer 800 m below the bottom of the sea.
Working with the Kyoto Protocol, world leaders acknowledge CCS as a potential mitigation mechanism, but no incentives were included in the final agreement.
Second commercial large scale project in operation: The In Salah project in Algeria
Australia is the first country to establish a regulatory framework for CCS
EU heads of state and government commit to building 10-12 demonstration projects for CCS by 2015.
The G8 leaders recognize the critical role of CCS in tackling climate change, and recommend to build 20 CCS demonstration plants worldwide by 2010.
An emission performance standard (EPS) of 1100 lbs of CO2 per Megawatt-hour for electricity procured by local publicly owned utilities enters into force in California – effectively requiring CCS on coal power plants.
The EU Climate package: An EU wide demonstration programme for CCS is established, and income from 300 millionallowances from the European Trading Scheme (ETS) will be used to finance the demonstration programme.
CO2 Storage Directive and financial mechanisms for CCS demonstration projects also part of the agreement.
Introduction of European Commission’s NER300 – world’s largest funding programme for CCS demonstration projects and innovative renewable energy technologies.
Official opening of Technology Centre Mongstad (TCM) in Norway – world’s largest facility for testing and improving CO2 capture.
Canada sets CO2 Emission Performance Standard (EPS) for both new coal-fired power plants and existing plants that have reached the end of their useful lives, which effectively calls for CCS, at 420 tonnes of CO2 per GWh.
EU releases CCS Communication which acknowledges role of CCS in tackling emissions from industry.
Bio-CCS facility Decatur in Illinois, USA, stores world’s first 500,000 carbon negative tonnes of CO2
World’s first full-scale commerical CCS project opens at coal power plant Boundary Dam in Canada’s Saskatchewan province.
The EU sets climate targets in the 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy Policy and begins work on the Energy Union Strategy.